Cefazolin and Dextrose USP

The following drug information is obtained from various newswires, published medical journal articles, and medical conference presentations.


Approval Status:

Approved July 2000

Specific Treatments:

Various bacterial infections, septicemia, endocarditis, and perioperative prophylaxis

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General Information

Cefazolin and Dextrose USP, for injection, has recently been approved using the Duplex drug delivery system, for the treatment of various bacterial infections. The multiple indications for this combination therapy include, but are not limited to respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, biliary tract infections, bone and joint infections, genital infections, septicemia (bloodstream infections), endocarditis (inflammatory disorder of the heart valves), and perioperative prophylaxis.

The administration of Cefazolin and Dextrose preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively to patients undergoing high risk surgeries, such as a vaginal hysterectomy or to older patients at high risk of infection due to a compromised immune system, may decrease the occurance of certain postoperative infections.

Clinical Results

In vitro tests have shown that the antibacterial action of Cefazolin is caused by the drug's inhibition of cell wall synthesis, therefore reducing bacterial cell growth.
Studies have also shown that in patients hospitalized with infection, Cefazolin administered intravenously has produced the same blood serum levels seen in healthy volunteers.

Side Effects

Common side effects of Cefazolin and Dextrose for injection include, but are not limited to:

Gastrointestional reactions, including:
  • Diarrhea
  • Oral candidiasis
  • Stomach cramps
  • Anorexia

Allergic reactions, including:

  • Anaphylaxis
  • Eosinophilia
  • Itching
  • Drug fever
  • Skin rash
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

Hematologic reactions, including:

  • Neutropenia
  • Leukopenia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Thrombocythemia

Some cases of Interstitial nephritis and other renal disorders have been reported rarely. In clinical trials, patients who experienced these side effects were seriously ill and were receiving multiple drug therapies. Transient hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice are also uncommon side effects associated with penicillin and cephalosporins.

Other rare side effects include genital and anal pruritis and rare instances of phlebitis at the site of injection.

Cefazolin and Dextrose injection is contraindicated for patients:

  • with known allergies to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics
  • with hypersensitivity to corn products
  • currently taking probenecid

Serious or fatal hypersensitivy has been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. Anaphalactic reactions are more likely to occur in patients that have a known history of sensitivity to multiple allergans.

Pseudomembranous colitis has also been reported and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening.

Mechanism of Action

Cefazolin for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic (does not induce fever), single use, packaged combination of Cefazolin Sodium USP (lyophilized) and sterile iso-osmotic dilutant in the DUPLEX sterile container. (From FDA Label) It is administered through parenteral injection or intramuscular injection.

Additional Information

While using Cefazoline USP and Dextrose USP diabetics may get a false-positive result when testing for sugar in their urine. Check with your doctor or a healthcare professional before changing your diet or your diabetic medication.

Pregnant women using Cefazoline USP and Dextrose USP should know that while the drug has not been shown to have harmful effects on the fetus, no adequate or conclusive studies have been done on Cefazoline use in pregnant women. The drug is present in trace amounts in the milk of nursing mothers. Nursing mothers should only use this drug when it is clearly necessary and prescribed by a physician.