Currently Enrolling Trials
Stromectol (ivermectin) is a semisynthetic, anthelmintic agent for oral administration. Ivermectin is derived from the avermectins, a class of highly active broad-spectrum, anti-parasitic agents.
Stromectol is specifically indicated for the treatment of the following infections:
- Strongyloidiasis of the intestinal tract. Stromectol is indicated for the treatment of intestinal (i.e., nondisseminated) strongyloidiasis due to the nematode parasite Strongyloides stercoralis.
- Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness. Stromectol is indicated for the treatment of onchocerciasis due to the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus.
The recommended dosage of Stromectol for the treatment of strongyloidiasis is a single oral dose designed to provide approximately 200 mcg of ivermectin per kg of body weight. Patients should take tablets on an empty stomach with water. In general, additional doses are not necessary. However, follow-up stool examinations should be performed to verify eradication of infection.
The recommended dosage of Stromectol for the treatment of onchocerciasis is a single oral dose designed to provide approximately 150 mcg of ivermectin per kg of body weight. Patients should take tablets on an empty stomach with water. In mass distribution campaigns in international treatment programs, the most commonly used dose interval is 12 months. For the treatment of individual patients, retreatment may be considered at intervals as short as 3 months.
Mechanism of Action
Ivermectin is a member of the avermectin class of broad-spectrum antiparasitic agents which have a unique mode of action. Compounds of the class bind selectively and with high affinity to glutamate-gated chloride ion channels which occur in invertebrate nerve and muscle cells. This leads to an increase in the permeability of the cell membrane to chloride ions with hyperpolarization of the nerve or muscle cell, resulting in paralysis and death of the parasite. Compounds of this class may also interact with other ligand-gated chloride channels, such as those gated by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Adverse effects associated with the use of Stromectol for Strongyloidiasis may include:
Adverse effects associated with the use of Stromectol for onchocerciasis may include:
- axillary lymph node enlargement and tenderness
- inguinal lymph node enlargement and tenderness
- skin involvement including edema, papular and pustular or frankurticarial rash
Clinical Trial Results
Two controlled clinical studies using albendazole as the comparative agent were carried out in international sites where albendazole is approved for the treatment of strongyloidiasis of the gastrointestinal tract, and three controlled studies were carried out in the U.S. and internationally using thiabendazole as the comparative agent. Efficacy, as measured by cure rate, was defined as the absence of larvae in at least two follow-up stool examinations 3 to 4 weeks post-therapy. Based on this criterion, efficacy was significantly greater for Stromectol (a single dose of 170 to 200 mcg/kg) than for albendazole (200 mg b.i.d. for 3 days). Stromectol administered as a single dose of 200 mcg/kg for 1 day was as efficacious as thiabendazole administered at 25 mg/kg b.i.d. for 3 days
The evaluation of Stromectol in the treatment of onchocerciasis is based on the results of clinical studies involving 1278 patients. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving adult patients with moderate to severe onchocercal infection, patients who received a single dose of 150 mcg/kg Stromectol experienced an 83.2% and 99.5% decrease in skin microfilariae count (geometric mean) 3 days and 3 months after the dose, respectively. A marked reduction of >90% was maintained for up to 12 months after the single dose. As with other microfilaricidal drugs, there was an increase in the microfilariae count in the anterior chamber of the eye at day 3 after treatment in some patients. However, at 3 and 6 months after the dose, a significantly greater percentage of patients treated with 3 Stromectol had decreases in microfilariae count in the anterior chamber than patients treated with placebo.
In a separate open study involving pediatric patients ages 6 to 13 (n=103; weight range: 17-41 kg), similar decreases in skin microfilariae counts were observed for up to 12 months after dosing.