Currently Enrolling Trials
Relenza (Zanamivir for Inhalation) is an antiviral.
Relenza is specifically indicated for treatment of uncomplicated acute illness 100 due to influenza virus in adults and adolescents 12 years and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days.
Relenza is for administration to the respiratory tract by oral inhalation only, using the DISKHALER device provided. The recommended dose of Relenza for treatment of influenza in patients 12 years of age is 2 inhalations (one 5-mg blister per inhalation for a total dose of 10 mg) twice daily (approximately 12 hours apart) for 5 days. Two doses should be taken on the first day of treatment whenever possible provided there is at least 2 hours between doses. On subsequent days, doses should be about 12 hours apart (e.g., morning and evening) at approximately the same time each day. There are no data on the effectiveness of treatment with Relenza when initiated more than 2 days after the onset of signs or symptoms.
Adverse effects associated with the use of Relenza may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Mechanism of Action
The proposed mechanism of action of zanamivir is via inhibition of influenza virus neuraminidase with the possibility of alteration of virus particle aggregation and release.
Clinical Trial Results
The efficacy of Relenza 10 mg inhaled twice daily for 5 days in the treatment of influenza has been evaluated in placebo-controlled studies conducted in North America, the Southern Hemisphere, and Europe during their respective influenza seasons. The magnitude of treatment effect varied between studies, with possible relationships to population-related factors including amount of symptomatic relief medication used. Populations Studied: The principal phase 3 studies enrolled 1588 patients ages 12 years and older (median age 34 years, 49% male, 91% Caucasian), with uncomplicated influenza-like illness within 2 days of symptom onset. Influenza was confirmed by culture, hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, or investigational direct tests. Of 1164 patients with confirmed influenza, 89% had influenza A and 11% had influenza B. These studies served as the principal basis for efficacy evaluation, with more limited phase 2 studies providing supporting information where necessary. Following randomization to either zanamivir or placebo (inhaled lactose vehicle), all patients received instruction and supervision by a healthcare professional for the initial dose. Principal Results: The definition of time to improvement in major symptoms of influenza included no fever and self-assessment of “none” or “mild” for headache, myalgia, cough, and sore throat. A phase 2 and a phase 3 study conducted in North America (total of over 600 influenza-positive patients) suggested up to one day of shortening of median time to this defined improvement in symptoms in patients receiving zanamivir compared to placebo, although statistical significance was not reached in either of these studies. In a study conducted in the Southern Hemisphere (321 influenza-positive patients), a 1.5-day difference in median time to symptom improvement was observed. Additional evidence of efficacy was provided by the European study.