Currently Enrolling Trials
Glucagon is an antihypoglycemic agent,
Glucagon is specifically indicated for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in pediatric and adult patients with diabetes mellitus.
Glucagon is supplied as a solution for subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injection. The recommended dosing is as follows:
- Adults and Pediatric Patients Weighing 20 kg or More:
- The recommended dosage is 1 mg (1 mL) injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly into the upper arm, thigh, or buttocks, or intravenously.
- If there has been no response after 15 minutes, an additional 1 mg dose (1 mL) may be administered while waiting for emergency assistance.
- Pediatric Patients Weighing Less Than 20 kg:
- The recommended dosage is 0.5 mg (0.5 mL) or dose equivalent to 20 to 30 mcg/kg injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly into the upper arm, thigh, or buttocks, or intravenously.
- If there has been no response after 15 minutes, an additional 0.5 mg dose (0.5 mL) may be administered while waiting for emergency assistance.
Mechanism of Action
Glucagon is an antihypoglycemic agent. The chemical structure of the glucagon is identical to human glucagon. Glucagon increases blood glucose concentration by activating hepatic glucagon receptors, thereby stimulating glycogen breakdown and release of glucose from the liver. Hepatic stores of glycogen are necessary for glucagon to produce an antihypoglycemic effect.
Adverse effects associated with the use of Glucagon may include, but are not limited to, the following:
- injection site reactions
- decreased blood pressure
Clinical Trial Results
Blood glucose concentrations rise within 10 minutes of subcutaneous injection and mean maximal concentration of 136 mg/dL is attained 30 minutes after injection. Similarly, following intramuscular injection, the mean peak glucose level was 138 mg/dL, which occurred at 26 minutes after injection. Glucagon injected through the intramuscular route achieved mean peak plasma levels of 6.9 ng/mL at approximately 13 minutes after dosing; and 7.9 ng/mL at approximately 20 minutes after subcutaneous dosing. Administration of the intravenous glucagon showed dose proportionality of the pharmacokinetics between 0.25 and 2 mg.