Last updated on October 2018

Comparison of a Rivaroxaban-based Strategy With an Antiplatelet-based Strategy Following Successful TAVR for the Prevention of Leaflet Thickening and Reduced Leaflet Motion as Evaluated by Four-dimensional Volume-rendered Computed Tomography (4DCT)


Brief description of study

The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta. Patients with symptomatic, severe aortic valve stenosis conventionally have it surgically replaced requiring direct access to the heart through the chest. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now a well-established alternative for treating severe aortic valve stenosis. Both types of intervention improve prognosis and alleviate symptoms.

The optimal choice of blood thinning therapy after TAVR is unknown. It has been reported that leaflet thrombosis with reduced leaflet motion can occur and this phenomenon has been suggested to be potentially related with neurological events. In addition, the occurence of this phenomenon can be reduced with anticoagulation blood thinning therapy.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate if anticoagulation compared to the usual double platelet inhibitor therapy after TAVR can reduce the risk of leaflet thrombosis.

Detailed Study Description

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an established therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic, severe aortic valve stenosis, who are ineligible or at high risk for conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). It was recently reported that leaflet thickening and reduced leaflet motion, verified by four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), was not uncommon after both TAVR and SAVR. It has been emphasized that this phenomenon should be further investigated for its effect on clinical outcomes (e.g. stroke) and valve durability. As this valve leaflet thickening and reduced motion could be reversed by oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment and was not observed in patients on chronic OAC therapy, it has been hypothesized that this phenomenon could be related to possible leaflet thrombosis or a "thrombotic film" on the leaflets.

AIM: To evaluate whether a rivaroxaban-based strategy, following successful TAVR, compared to an antiplatelet-based strategy, is superior in reducing subclinical valve leaflet thickening and motion abnormalities - as detected by 4DCT-scan.

POPULATION: All patients undergoing successful TAVR by ileofemoral or subclavian access with an approved TAVR device will be screened for eligibility. Included subjects must provide written informed consent. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are listed below.

DESIGN: The GALILEO-4D trial will be conducted as a substudy of the multicenter, open-label, randomized, event-driven, active-controlled GALILEO trial. Patients will be 1:1 randomized to an antiplatelet-based strategy vs. rivaroxaban-based strategy - the randomization will adopt the same 1:1 randomization of the main GALILEO trial. In case the GALILEO-4D trial should still be continued after completion of the main GALILEO trial, this 1:1 randomization will be continued until inclusion of 150 patients in both treatment groups. In total, 300 patients will be randomized in the GALILEO-4D trial.

INTERVENTION: Subjects in the GALILEO-4D substudy will receive the same intervention as in the main GALILEO study. In addition, a 4DCT-scan and echocardiography will be performed at 90 days after randomization.

END POINTS: The primary endpoint constitutes the rate of patients with at least one prosthetic leaflet with > 50% motion reduction as assessed by cardiac 4DCT-scan (total N = 300). The secondary endpoints are listed below.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT02833948

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Eberhard ulz Schulz

Medicin Herzzentrum Lahr/Baden
Lahr, Germany