FMT to Convert Response to Immunotherapy

  • End date
    Apr 25, 2025
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute
Updated on 4 October 2022


In this study the aim is to investigate whether transfer of the microbiota of either responder or non-responder patients via fecal microbiotica transplantation (FMT) can convert the response to immunotherapy in immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) refractory metastatic melanoma patients.

This is a randomized double-blind intervention phase Ib/IIa trial in ICI refractory metastatic melanoma patients receiving either FMT of an ICI responding or FMT from an ICI non-responding donor, in combination with ICI.

Following randomization, patients will receive vancomycin 250 mg, four times daily for 4 days (day -5 up until day -2), and undergo bowel clearance on day -1 (in total 1L MoviPrep). The FMT, either derived from donor group R (who showed a good response on anti-PD-1 therapy) or donor group NR (who showed progression on anti-PD-1 therapy), will be performed by a gastroenterologist using esophagogastroduodenoscopy. A total amount of 198mL (containing a total of 60 gram feces) will be used for transplantation. Anti-PD-1 treatment will be continued according to the patient's regular treatment schedule. Evaluation of safety and response to treatment will be performed.

Condition Melanoma Stage III, Melanoma Stage IV
Treatment Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05251389
SponsorThe Netherlands Cancer Institute
Last Modified on4 October 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patients should be 18 years or older
Patients have pathologically confirmed advanced stage cutaneous melanoma (stage III or IV) requiring systemic treatment with anti-PD-1
In case of stage IV disease, only patients with M1a or M1b disease are eligible
Patients have confirmed disease progression (≥20% increase according to RECIST1.1) on
two consecutive scans with a four week interval while on anti-PD-1 treatment
of which the second scan has to be performed within 3 weeks prior to signing
informed consent
Patients must have measurable disease per RECIST 1.1 criteria
Patients have an ECOG performance status of 0-1 (appendix D)
Patients have a life expectancy of >3 months
Patients have adequate organ function as determined by standard-of-care pre-checkpoint inhibitor infusion lab (including serum ALAT/ASAT less than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN); serum creatinine clearance 50ml/min or higher; total bilirubin less than or equal to 20 micromol/L, except in patients with Gilbert's Syndrome who must have a total bilirubin less than 50 micromol/L)
Patients have an LDH level of ≤1 times ULN
Patients of both genders must be willing to use a highly effective method of birth control during treatment
Patients must be able to understand and sign the Informed Consent document

Exclusion Criteria

Patients with acral, uveal or mucosal melanoma, or patients with an unknown primary
Patients who have received treatment for their melanoma other than anti-PD-1 treatment
Stage IV patients with M1c or M1d disease
Patients with autoimmune diseases: patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are excluded from this study (except Hashimoto thyroiditis, vitiligo, history of psoriasis, but no active disease)
Patients with any grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events still requiring active immunosuppressive medication, apart from endocrinopathies that are stable under hormone replacement therapy. Patients who had developed grade 3-4 immune related toxicity, which has reverted to grade I with immunosuppressive drugs and who are off immunosuppression at least two weeks prior to enrollment are eligible
Patients with brain or LM metastasis
Patients with an elevated LDH level
Patients that have undergone major gastric/esophageal/bowel surgery (like Wipple, subtotal colectomy)
Severe food allergy (e.g. nuts, shellfish)
Patients with a swallowing disorder or expected bowel passage problems (ileus, fistulas, perforation)
Severe dysphagia with incapability of swallowing 2 liters of bowel lavage
Patients with a life expectancy of less than three months
Patients with severe cardiac or pulmonary comorbidities (per judgement of the investigator)
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding
Patients with any active systemic infections, coagulation disorders or other active major medical illnesses
Patients with other malignancies, except adequately treated and a cancer-related life-expectancy of more than 5 years
Patients who received treatment with antibiotics in the three months prior to study enrolment, or patients we are expected to receive systemic antibiotics during the course of this study
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