Prevalence and Factors Associated With Pancreatic Enzyme Elevations Among Diabetic Children

  • End date
    May 13, 2023
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Sohag University
Updated on 2 June 2022


Acute pancreatitis was reported as a DKA associated complication. The true incidence and clinical significance of pancreatitis in children with DKA is unclear. And its diagnosis in children requires a high index of clinical suspicion . Severe hypertriglyceridemia is an uncommon T1D complication which is also due to insulin deficiency and which can trigger acute pancreatitis The triad of DKA, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and acute pancreatitis have been described in children, especially in those with new onset T1D, abdominal pain and vomiting occasionally prompt the measurement of pancreatic enzymes Previous studies indicate that pancreatic enzyme elevations, particularly increased serum lipase levels, are very common in children with DKA. The magnitude of lipase elevation appears to correlate with the degree of acidosis, whereas increased serum amylase level is nonspecific. The majority of patients with elevated enzymes had no significant abdominal symptoms or delay in their clinical recovery. In those with persistent abdominal symptoms after acidosis resolved, abdominal CT findings were normal. The results of previous pediatric studies were comparable to those from studies in adult patients with DKA. Amylase and/or lipase elevations have been reported in 24.7% to 79% of cases. However, the incidence of acute pancreatitis in DKA seems to be higher in adults compared with children and is reported to be more than 10% they also have found that pancreatic enzyme elevations occur much less commonly in the setting of new-onset diabetes without DKA. Consistent with this observation, pancreatic enzymes have been reported to be higher in patients with poorly controlled diabetes compared with those in good control. It was postulated to result from direct injury to the pancreas with enzyme leakage from the acini, secretion of amylase and lipase from non-pancreatic sources, and decreased renal clearance .Acute pancreatitis also is attributed to hypertriglyceridemia.

the diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis requires 2 of the 3 criteria: (1) abdominal pain not due to other causes, (2) elevated serum lipase or amylase 3 times the upper limit of the normal reference range (ULN), and/or (3) imaging evidence of pancreatitis . But also, there are limitations associated with each criterion in children . Although abdominal pain is the most common presentation, up to one third of patients may not report abdominal pain and radiation of pain to the back occurs in5% .

Condition Diabetic Children
Treatment blood glucose, blood gases, serum electrolytes, HbA1c, complete blood count and serum creatinine. Serum calcium, serum amylase, serum lipase and serum triglycerides , abdominal ultrasound
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05392166
SponsorSohag University
Last Modified on2 June 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

children aged 0-12 years, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and admitted to the pediatric emergency department with DKA criteria including, Blood glucose level > 200 mg/dl, pH < 7.3, and /or bicarbonate level in blood < 15 mmol/l and positive ketones in urine by dipstick method, will be included. Age, sex and duration of diabetes matched control children without DKA will be recruited from T1DM children attending the pediatric diabetes clinic at Sohag university hospital

Exclusion Criteria

Patients diagnosed with congenital or acquired chronic pancreatitis or gall stones will be excluded
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