The Effect of Hot Application on Shoulder Pain and Analgesic Use After Laparoscopic Upper Abdominal Surgery

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    Cukurova University
Updated on 17 October 2022


The aim of this study; To evaluate the effect of hot application on postlaparoscopic shoulder pain and analgesic use in patients undergoing upper laparoscopic surgery in general surgery.


Among the advantages of laparoscopic surgery; smaller incisions, less postoperative pain, less need for analgesia, shorter hospital stay, earlier return to normal activities and lower morbidity. However, laparoscopic surgery is associated with postoperative shoulder pain, which is rarely seen in open surgeries. The precise mechanism of postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLOA) is unclear, but it is believed that the carbon dioxide remaining after laparoscopic surgery causes shoulder pain by causing irritation of the phrenic nerve. In some cases, PLOA may cause more discomfort to the patient than incisional pain.

Hot application is an effective method used to relieve pain. Hot application activates the gate control mechanism, stimulating tactile receptors, reducing ischemic pain with vasodilation, removing metabolic wastes, increasing the release of endorphins, eliminating muscle spasm, reducing effects such as pressure, stretching and hypoxia on nerve endings as a result of changes in the viscoelastic properties of tissues, raising the pain threshold, It reduces or relieves pain by sedating and creating relief in the patient.

Hot application is easy to use, inexpensive, requires no prior application, and has minimal adverse side effects when used correctly. Heat sources include a hot water heater, an electric heating pad, a warm blanket, and a warm bath or shower. In addition to being used as a pain reliever, heat is used to relieve chills or shivering, reduce joint stiffness, reduce muscle spasm, and increase connective tissue extensibility.

In the study of Mohamed et al., in which they examined the effect of hot application and early mobilization on shoulder pain, in the experimental group patients who received hot application; Postoperative shoulder pain was found to be significantly less than the control group at different evaluation times at 4 hours after surgery and at 6, 12 and 24 hours (p<0.001).

Condition Pain, Shoulder
Treatment hot application
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05334797
SponsorCukurova University
Last Modified on17 October 2022


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Inclusion Criteria

Agreeing to participate in the research
Having undergone laparoscopic abdominal surgery
Those who have no previous history of surgery

Exclusion Criteria

Those who did not agree to participate in the research
Those who have had previous abdominal surgery
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