Intravesical Recombinant BCG Followed by Perioperative Chemo-immunotherapy for Patients With MIBC

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Jun 13, 2030
  • participants needed
    46
  • sponsor
    Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research
Updated on 4 October 2022
radical cystectomy
carcinoma
gemcitabine
EGFR
invasive bladder cancer
cisplatin/gemcitabine
atezolizumab
bladder tumor
intravesical bcg
bladder instillation

Summary

Current treatment of localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer is still associated with high relapse and death rate as well as the need for complete bladder resection or irradiation.

The primary objective of this trial is to increase the rate of pathologic complete remission (pCR) at the time of radical cystectomy by the combination of local bladder instillation with Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) in combination with systemic immunotherapy with atezolizumab and standard chemotherapy with cisplatin/gemcitabine.

The trial tests the hypothesis whether BCG can enhance systemic and local immune response and thereby increase pCR rate and consequently also event-free survival. Improving pCR rate would be a next step to the ultimate goal of omitting radical surgery or extensive local radiotherapy to the bladder for these patients.

Description

Current treatment of localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer is still associated with high relapse and death rate as well as the need for complete bladder resection or irradiation.

In recent years, immunotherapy using PD-1 or PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proved successful for patients with metastatic bladder cancer. The checkpoint inhibitors atezolizumab (anti PD-L1), pembrolizumab (anti PD-1) and nivolumab (anti PD-1) now represent the standard of care in the second line setting of metastatic bladder cancer and are all approved by Swissmedic for this indication.

First results, in 2018, have been presented and published using immune checkpoint inhibitors as neoadjuvant treatment for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer. SAKK has also performed a single arm phase II trial using neoadjuvant chemo-immunotherapy with cisplatin/gemcitabine in combination with the PD-L1 inhibitor durvalumab (SAKK 06/17). A preplanned interim analysis of the first 30 operated patients revealed a pCR rate of 30%. In this study, residual non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) was found in approximately 15% of cases. While these results are encouraging, the improvement of pCR rate compared to cisplatin-based chemotherapy alone is small and further improvement is needed.

BCG induces an intense local inflammatory response that mediates tumor immunity. Several steps are involved in mounting the inflammatory response including attachment to the urothelium with uptake by antigen presenting cells (APC) and putative internalization into urothelial cells followed by a boost of the innate immune response and induction of adaptive responses. Based on these findings, intravesical BCG appears to be a very interesting agent to enhance the immune response and act as an adjuvant agent to increase anti-tumor response with immune checkpoint inhibition using monoclonal antibodies such as atezolizumab. The combination of intravesical BCG and systemic immune checkpoint inhibition is being studied for patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in several ongoing phase III trials.

the investigators therefore propose to add an induction cycle of intravesical recombinant BCG (VPM1002BC) (total of 3 weeks) to the backbone of neoadjuvant chemo-immunotherapy with cisplatin/gemcitabine and atezolizumab. The trial tests the hypothesis if recombinant BCG can enhance systemic and local immune response and thereby increase pCR rate and consequently also event-free survival. Improving pCR rate would be a next step to the ultimate goal of omitting radical surgery or extensive local radiotherapy to the bladder for these patients.

Details
Condition Bladder Cancer
Treatment cisplatin, Gemcitabine, Atezolizumab, Recombinant intravesical BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin VPM1002BC)
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04630730
SponsorSwiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research
Last Modified on4 October 2022

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Written informed consent according to ICH/GCP regulations before registration and prior to any trial specific procedures
Histologically proven urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder (cT2, cT3 or cT4a and ≤ cN1 (defined as a solitary lymph node ≤ 2 cm in the greatest dimension) and cM0) and be considered suitable for curative multimodality treatment including radical cystectomy by a multidisciplinary tumor board
All histological subtypes eligible with the exception of small cell component
Age ≥ 18 years
WHO performance status 0-1
Hematological function: hemoglobin ≥ 90 g/L, neutrophils ≥ 1.5 x 109/L, platelets ≥ 100 x 109/L
Hepatic function: total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x ULN (except for patients with Gilbert's disease ≤ 3.0 x ULN), AST ≤ 2.5 x ULN and ALT ≤ 2.5 x ULN, AP ≤ 2.5 x ULN
Renal function: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 50 mL/min/1.73m², according to CKD-EPI formula
Women of childbearing potential must use effective contraception, are not pregnant or lactating and agree not to become pregnant during trial treatment and until 5 months after the last dose of investigational drug
Men agree not to donate sperm or to father a child during trial treatment and until 5 months after the last dose of investigational drug ([www.swissmedicinfo.ch](http://www.swissmedicinfo.ch/))

Exclusion Criteria

Any pathological evidence of small-cell carcinoma component
Presence of any distant metastasis
History of hematologic or primary solid tumor malignancy, unless in remission for at least 3 years after registration, with the exception of adequately treated cervical carcinoma in situ, localized non-melanoma skin cancer or low risk localized prostate cancer (T1-T2a, Gleason <7, PSA <10ng/ml)
Residual urinary bladder volume after micturition > 150ml (measured by ultrasound of bladder or inserted catheter)
Prior treatment for bladder cancer including BCG instillations. Single dose intravesical chemotherapy instillation after TURB is allowed
Bladder surgery or traumatic catheterization or TURB within 14 days prior to the expected start of BCG trial treatment
Uncontrollable urinary tract infection, macroscopic haematuria, suspicion of bladder perforation, urethral strictures (if interfering with trial procedures)
Any conditions preventing the patient from keeping BCG instillation in the bladder for at least 1 hour; anticholinergics are allowed to achieve this criterion
Any previous treatment with a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor, including atezolizumab
Concomitant or prior use of immunosuppressive medication within 28 days before registration, with the exceptions of intranasal and inhaled corticosteroids, or systemic corticosteroids which must not exceed 10 mg/day of prednisone (or a dose equivalent corticosteroid) and the premedication for chemotherapy
Concurrent treatment with other experimental drugs or other anticancer therapy, treatment in a clinical trial within 28 days prior to registration
Major surgical procedure within 28 days prior to registration
Preexisting peripheral neuropathy (> grade 1)
Active or prior documented autoimmune or inflammatory disorders (including inflammatory bowel disease [e.g., colitis or Crohn's disease], diverticulitis [with the exception of diverticulosis], systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis syndrome, or Wegener syndrome [granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Graves' disease, rheumatoid arthritis, hypophysitis, uveitis, etc]). The following are exceptions to this
criterion
Patients with vitiligo or alopecia
Patients with hypothyroidism (e.g., following Hashimoto syndrome) stable on hormone replacement
Any chronic skin condition that does not require systemic therapy
Patients without active disease in the last 5 years may be included but only after consultation with the coordinating investigator
Patients with celiac disease controlled by diet alone
Known history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or active chronic Hepatitis C or
Hepatitis B Virus infection or any uncontrolled active systemic infection
requiring intravenous (iv) antimicrobial treatment
Known history of tuberculosis, known history of primary immunodeficiency, known history of allogeneic organ transplant, or receipt of live attenuated vaccine within 28 days prior to registration
Severe or uncontrolled cardiovascular disease (congestive heart failure NYHA III or IV), unstable angina pectoris, history of myocardial infarction within the last six months, serious arrhythmias requiring medication (with exception of atrial fibrillation or paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia), significant QT-prolongation, uncontrolled hypertension
Any concomitant drugs contraindicated for use with the trial drugs according to the approved product information
Known hypersensitivity to trial drugs or to any component of the trial drugs
Any other serious underlying medical, psychiatric, psychological, familial or geographical condition, which in the judgment of the investigator may interfere with the planned staging, treatment and follow-up, affect patient compliance or place the patient at high risk from treatment-related complications
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