Inspiratory Muscle Training for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients on Hemodialysis

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    Universitas Padjadjaran
Updated on 26 June 2022


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global public health problem with an increasing prevalence and incidence, poor prognosis, and high costs. It is characterized by changes in the kidney structure and functions for more than three months. It is grouped into several stages, including end-stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the RRT options other than kidney transplantation. Regular moderate-intensity exercise may improve certain elements of the immune system and have anti-inflammatory benefits. Aerobic exercise, extremity muscle strength exercises, and inspiratory muscle training have been reported to improve kidney function and quality of life in CKD patients receiving hemodialysis three times a week. However, the effect of inspiratory muscle training on kidney and immune function, and quality of life in CKD patients receiving HD twice a week remains unclear.


Exercise causes a variety of immunological responses, including the production of interleukins. There is some evidence that exercise is correlated with a reduction in systemic inflammation. Prolonged exercise and regular exercise decrease baseline IL-6 levels as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) exercise program can improve endothelial function and oxidative stress, both of which affect the progression of kidney disease. The IMT exercise program can induce a decrease in sympathoadrenal activation, as well as a decrease in adrenaline and noradrenaline circulation, thereby preventing endothelial and glycocalyx injury. So, the IMT can improve kidney function. Previous study showed IMT reducing urea and creatinine levels in CKD patients receiving HD thrice a week. The IMT also can improve quality of life of CKD patients receiving HD thrice a week.

Hemodialysis remains the primary RRT modality in Indonesia, and practice is strongly influenced by the socioeconomics of the region due to lack of third-party payers. Stretching resources to maximize outcome benefit is critical, and twice-weekly HD sessions are an improved and cost-effective clinical practice. Observational studies of twice-weekly HD in Taiwan and China have shown a possible benefit of the slower decline of renal function and acceptable nutritional status in recent years. However, there are limited data from performing IMT can improve kidney and immune function, and quality of life of CKD patients receiving HD twice a week.

As result of limited data, the investigators is looked forward to answer about the effect of the IMT exercise program on improving inflammatory cytokine IL-6, kidney function, and quality of life in end-stage CKD patients receiving HD twice a week.

Condition Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5 on Dialysis
Treatment Inspiratory Muscle Training with an intensity of 50% MIP, Inspiratory Muscle Training with an intensity of 10% MIP
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05241652
SponsorUniversitas Padjadjaran
Last Modified on26 June 2022

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