Opioid Treatment and Peer Recovery Support (JCOIN)

  • End date
    Apr 30, 2025
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Brown University
Updated on 14 March 2022


Determine whether a facilitated local change team intervention improves a probation organization's client-level medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) outcomes and implementation outcomes relative to baseline across multiple sites. Determine whether client-level outcomes are further enhanced by the introduction of Peer Support Services.


Background: The purpose is to determine whether a facilitated local change team (LCT) intervention improves linkage to medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) and implementation outcomes, and whether participant-level outcomes are further enhanced by the use of Peer Support Specialists (PSS).

Methods/Design: This Type 1 hybrid implementation-effectiveness study involves a pre-post design (implementation study) followed by a randomized trail of PSS (effectiveness study). The study is conducted at 7 performance sites in 3 states.

Phase 1 (Core Implementation Study): The Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainability (EPIS) framework is used to guide system-change through facilitated LCTs consisting of probation and community treatment staff who are given a core set of implementation strategies which are used to conduct a needs assessment and set goals. The overall objective is to improve linkage to the continuum of evidence-based care for justice-involved individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). Organizational (program-level) and staff survey are collected at the end of each EPIS stage (baseline Exploration, end of Preparation, end of Implementation, and 12 months [Sustainability]). Implementation outcomes: Organizational engagement in MOUD (primary), plus changes in staff knowledge/attitudes and organizational outcomes (secondary).

Phase 2 (Effectiveness Study of PSS): After completing implementation, 680 adults on probation are randomized to receive PSS vs. treatment as usual (TAU), with assessments at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. This trial tests whether having a trained peer improves clinical outcomes beyond effects of Core Implementation. Implementation program-level outcomes include organizational engagement in MOUD use (primary outcome); changes in staff knowledge and attitudes about MOUD, commitment and efficacy, readiness for change; organizational attitudes for change, commitment and efficacy (secondary outcomes). Client-level effectiveness outcomes include participant engagement in MOUD (primary outcome), probation revocation, illicit opioid use, and overdoses (secondary outcomes). Other aims include identifying barriers and facilitators, and cost-benefit analysis of PSS.

Primary Research Questions:

The primary aim is to test the effectiveness of PSS compared to TAU (agency approach after implementation) on outcomes of individuals on probation: Engagement in MOUD (primary effectiveness outcome), probation revocation (secondary), illicit opioid use (secondary), and overdose (tertiary).

The second aim is to test the effectiveness of EPIS-based Core Implementation Intervention relative to baseline on engagement in MOUD (primary implementation outcome).

The third aim is to test the effects of the EPIS implementation strategies relative to baseline on program-level (organizational and staff-level) outcomes.

The fourth aim is to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of implementing PSS compared to TAU.

The fifth aim is to identify organizational and staff barriers and facilitators to intervention implementation by conducting qualitative interviews with key probation and community treatment stakeholders who are managing and delivering the MOUD program.

Condition Opioid-use Disorder
Treatment Treatment as Usual (TAU), Core Intervention, Peer Support Specialists (PSS)
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04978168
SponsorBrown University
Last Modified on14 March 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Community Provider Staff: Any front-line treatment provider at an agency participating in this study who: (a) provides support to MOUD clients, (b) has an active caseload including some individuals on probation, (c) has been employed by the community treatment agency at least 3 months, and (d) willing to commit to 12 months to the project
Probation/Parole Staff: Any probation officer (PO) at an agency participating in this study who (a) has an active caseload, (b) has been employed at the probation agency at least 6 months, and (c) is willing to commit to 12 months to the project
Individuals on Probation: (a) 18 years or older, (b) committed to probation within 90 days prior to study enrollment, (c) English speaking, (d) diagnosed with OUD, (e) have stable method of contact in community

Exclusion Criteria

Individuals on Probation: Currently incarcerated or in a court-mandated inpatient treatment
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