Tacrolimus Versus Mycophenolate for Autoimmune Hepatitis Patients With Incomplete Response on First Line Therapy (TAILOR)

  • End date
    Jan 22, 2024
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Leiden University Medical Center
Updated on 22 March 2022


Rationale: The combination of azathioprine and prednisone is the first-line treatment for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. Complete biochemical remission (CR) is the first treatment goal in autoimmune hepatitis. CR is determined by AST and ALT and IgG within the reference range. CR is not reached in a substantial proportion of AIH patients: after one year 50%, after three years around 20% did not achieve CR. Without CR ongoing hepatitis leads to progression towards fibrosis and eventually (decompensated) cirrhosis. Not achieving CR is the most important risk factor for the need for liver transplantation or liver related death, independent of age and presence of cirrhosis. Tacrolimus (TAC) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are frequently used to prevent rejection in kidney and liver transplant patients. In AIH patients with insufficient response or intolerance to first-line therapy in retrospective cohort studies with MMF 0-57% and with TAC 20-95% CR was reached.

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of TAC with MMF as a second line treatment for AIH. Proportion of patients with CR after 12 months of treatment will be the primary outcome parameter to determine effectivity.

Study design: Randomized open-label two arm study. Patients will be randomized between treatment with TAC or MMF.

Study population: Patients with AIH with an incomplete response (no CR) to first-line treatment are eligible for this study.

Intervention: In the TAC group baseline treatment will be replaced by tacrolimus. In the MMF group baseline treatment will be replaced by MMF. The current dose of prednisolone, or at least 5 mg daily, will be continued in both arms. After achieving CR prednisolone will be tapered according to protocol.

Main study parameters/endpoints: Difference in proportion of patients with CR at 12 months (normalization of ALT, AST and IgG) between the TAC and MMF treatment group.

Secondary parameters:

  • Safety and tolerability of TAC and MMF treatments
  • Difference in proportion of patients with CR at 6 months (normalization of ALT, AST and IgG) between the TAC and MMF treatment group.
  • Difference in ALT, AST and IgG at 6 and 12 months versus baseline
  • Difference in fibrogenesis and fibrosis parameters between groups and before and after treatment
  • Difference in quality of life between groups and before and after treatment

Condition Autoimmune Hepatitis
Treatment mycophenolate mofetil, Tacrolimus
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05221411
SponsorLeiden University Medical Center
Last Modified on22 March 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patient is older than 18 years old
Probable or definite auto immune hepatitis according to the original or simplified IAIHG criteria (>10 points pre-treatment on the original criteria or >6 points on the simplified criteria)(2, 3)
Incomplete responder on at least a half year of first-line treatment, with at least last 6 months azathioprine / 6-MP) / 6-TG and prednisolone or budesonide, and ALT 1.5
x ULN for at least 2 months
Patient is capable of understanding the purpose and risks of the study, has been fully
informed and has given written informed consent to participate in the study

Exclusion Criteria

Presence of decompensated liver disease, defined as ascites, coagulopathy (INR >1.5), encephalopathy, variceal bleed, hepatopulmonal syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome or HCC in the past 6 months
Signs of other liver diseases as NAFLD, Wilson disease, hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease or hepatitis B/C/D
Clinical diagnosis of overlap / variant syndrome with PBC or PSC
Liver transplantation in the medical history or currently on the waiting list for liver transplantation
Incompliance with therapy during the last 12 months
Active infections during inclusion including latent tuberculosis and HIV co-infection
Allergic or hypersensitive to tacrolimus or MMF
An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min
Pregnancy or intention to become pregnant in the next 12 months
Use of TAC or MMF in the past
Malignancy in the medical history
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a study center
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer  to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact


Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note