AntiCoagulation Versus AcetylSalicylic Acid After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (ACASA-TAVI)

  • End date
    Nov 24, 2026
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Oslo University Hospital
Updated on 24 April 2022
transcatheter aortic valve implantation


ACASA-TAVI is a pragmatic randomized controlled trial assessing the value of anticoagulation therapy versus the standard antiplatelet therapy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with aortic stenosis. The trial will assess the efficacy of direct oral anticoagulation (DOAC) therapy compared to the standard single antiplatelet therapy to prevent degeneration of the valve and its safety in co-primary endpoints with blinded endpoint adjudication. The effect of DOAC therapy on hard clinical outcomes will be assessed during long-term follow-up.


Aortic stenosis is a highly prevalent valvular disease and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an effective intervention in patients with severe aortic stenosis and low surgical risk. The procedure is highly effective, safe, and widely implemented. Current recommendations support transcatheter treatment of younger patients, including patients from 65 years of age with low surgical risk. This practice increases the importance of long-term valve maintenance.

Observational data have suggested that early signs of valve degeneration (i.e. hypo-attenuated leaflet thickening/thrombosis/reduced leaflet motion) are associated with an increased risk of embolic events. This is an increasing problem with emerging indications in younger populations. Because both ischemic and bleeding complications after TAVI can be life-threatening, it is important to establish the optimal anti-thrombotic treatment regime. Use of oral anticoagulation after implantation for bioprosthetic valves have been associated with resolved valve degeneration and possible favourable clinical effects.

The current practice guidelines recommend that oral anticoagulation may be considered for 3 months after open surgical bioprosthetic valve implantation. Patients with an independent indication for oral anticoagulation (i.e. atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism) are recommended to continue this treatment lifelong, but there is no recommendation for oral anticoagulation following TAVI in patients without other indications. In patients without indication for oral anticoagulation, the use of double anti-platelet therapy for 3-6 months following TAVI is recommended. However, single anti-platelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) without clopidogrel has been reported to improve bleeding outcomes and a composite of bleeding and ischemic outcomes. The effect of on oral anticoagulation-based treatment strategy compared to the standard single anti-platelet treatment strategy for valve maintenance after TAVI is unknown.

Increased anti-thrombotic treatment intensity may come at the cost of increased bleeding risk. Dual anti-platelet therapy and combination therapy with anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapy have both been associated with unfavourable outcomes. Combined anti-platelet and anti-coagulation treatment has been shown to reduce valve degeneration at the cost of increased bleeding. Conversely, single anti-platelet therapy and anti-coagulation with a direct oral anti-coagulant (DOAC) have been associated with similar bleeding risk. Bleeding rates in patients treated with anti-coagulation after TAVI have been reported to be slightly higher than in patients treated with ASA after TAVI, but patients with conventional indications for anti-coagulation have higher baseline bleeding risk than those without such indications. Therefore, the risk of bleeding in patients treated with DOAC or ASA following TAVI may be similar, but no randomized trials have been performed.

ACASA-TAVI will include 360 patients > 65 years and < 80 years of age who have undergone successful TAVI and have no conventional indication for DOAC in a prospective randomized open-label blinded-endpoint (PROBE) study. The intervention arm will be 12 month therapy with an anti-Xa type DOAC (without antiplatelet therapy) and the active control arm will be standard dose ASA. After 12 months, the intervention group will be switched to ASA maintenance. All patients will undergo clinical assessment, cardiac CT and echocardiography at 12 months with blinded endpoint adjudication by an independent committee.

Outcome measures will comply with the Valve Academic Research Consortium 3 (VARC-3) consensus, and are described in detail in the protocol. The co-primary endpoints at 12 months, hypo-attenuated leaflet thickening (HALT) and safety composite, must both be met for the trial to declare success.

The effect of the DOAC therapy on long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) will be assessed after 5 years and 10 years.

Condition Aortic Stenosis
Treatment Rivaroxaban, Acetylsalicylic acid, Apixaban, Edoxaban
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05035277
SponsorOslo University Hospital
Last Modified on24 April 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Successful trans-catheter aortic valve implantation in patients aged >65 and <80 years old at the time of the procedure

Exclusion Criteria

Strict indication for anticoagulation or anti-platelet drugs
Strict contraindication for anticoagulation or anti-platelet drugs
Overt cognitive failure
Failure to obtain written informed consent
Concomitant use of inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein
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