Preventing Violence by Teachers in Primary Schools in Haiti (ICC-T_HAITI)

  • End date
    Jul 31, 2024
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Bielefeld University
Updated on 23 March 2022
Accepts healthy volunteers


Violence has severe and long-lasting negative consequences for children's and adolescents' well-being and academic functioning, which can hinder communities' and societies' economic growth. According to the Human Development Index, Haiti is one of the least developed countries in the world and the least developed in the Western hemisphere. Although Haiti has officially signed international and national laws aiming to protect children, preliminary reports suggest high rates of violence against children at schools. In addition to a lack of adequate training and supervision of teachers and an underdeveloped education system, attitudes favoring violence against children as an effective and acceptable discipline method and the lack of access to alternative non-violent strategies are likely to contribute to teachers' ongoing use of violence against children.

Notwithstanding, no school-level interventions addressing these factors to reduce violence by teachers have been scientifically evaluated in Haiti so far.

Thus, the present study tests the effectiveness of the preventative intervention Interaction Competencies with Children - for Teachers (ICC-T) in primary schools in Haiti. Previous studies have provided initial evidence on the feasibility and effectiveness of ICC-T to reduce teacher violence in primary and secondary schools in Tanzania and secondary schools in Uganda. This study aims to provide first evidence for the effectiveness of ICC-T to reduce violence and to improve children's functioning (i.e. mental health, well-being, academic performance) in a cultural setting outside of Sub-Saharan Africa.


The study is designed as a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with schools (clusters) as level of randomization. The study will be conducted in the Northern department of Haiti. Six schools in each of the 6 included communes will be randomly selected, resulting in a total number of 36 schools.

In each commune, three schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention group (that will receive the ICC-T intervention) and three schools to the control group (that will receive no intervention). At each school, 28 students (stratified by gender) in the 4th grade of primary School (between 9 and 11 years of age) and all teachers (at least 13) will be recruited. Thus, the final sample will comprise at least 1008 students and at least 468 teachers.

The study will have three data assessment points: baseline assessment prior to the intervention, the first follow-up assessment six months after the intervention and the second follow-up assessment 18 months after the intervention. In addition, feasibility data will be assessed in the intervention group at the beginning and the end of the intervention. Primary outcome measures are student- and teacher-reported physical and emotional violence by teachers in the past week. Secondary outcome measures include teachers' attitudes towards violence against students, children's emotional and behavioral problems, quality of life, and cognitive functioning.

Condition Violence by Teachers
Treatment Interaction Competencies with Children - for Teachers (ICC-T)
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05081622
SponsorBielefeld University
Last Modified on23 March 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Written informed consent (if underaged by parents & minors themselves)
Students: Enrollment in class 4 of primary school
Teachers: All teachers employed at the school
Public or community schools
Mixed-gender schools
Day schools
At least 40 students in selected class/stream

Exclusion Criteria

Students and teachers
Acute drug or alcohol intoxication
Acute psychotic disorder
• Previous training on violence prevention
Clear my responses

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Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

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If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

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Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

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