Comparison of Endoscopic Resection and Surgery for Early Gastric Cancer With Undifferentiated Histological Type

  • End date
    Dec 31, 2027
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    National Cancer Center, Korea
Updated on 17 September 2021
ct scan
endoscopic submucosal dissection
early gastric cancer


This multi-center, randomized controlled trial is designed to evaluate clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESD for undifferentiated type of EGC meeting the expanded indication compared with surgery.


Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a minimally invasive treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Because of the stomach preservation, ESD provides a better quality of life (QoL) in EGC patients than surgery. In addition, medical costs are lower in patients underwent ESD than in those underwent surgery. In 2018, gastric cancer management guidelines by the Korean Gastric Cancer Association and Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) stated that undifferentiated type of EGC, clinically diagnosed as tumor confined to the mucosa without ulcer, and size 2 cm, is included in the expanded indication of ESD. In the 2018 JGCA guideline (version 5), ESD is an investigational treatment for patients with undifferentiated type of EGC meeting the expanded indication whereas surgery (gastrectomy with lymph node dissection) is a standard treatment. Previous single center retrospective studies reported favorable long-term outcomes of ESD for undifferentiated type EGC meeting the expanded criteria on final pathological evaluations compared with that of surgery. More recently, a multi-center retrospective cohort study including 18 Korean university hospitals also reported no significant difference in overall mortality between ESD and surgery after propensity score matching (hazard ratio [HR] for overall mortality in the ESD group, 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-6.10; p=0.078) during a median follow-up of 75.6 months. However, gastric cancer recurrence occurred only in the ESD group, and the HR for gastric cancer recurrence in the ESD group was 25.49 (95% CI 1.32-491.27; p=0.032). The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate including gastric cancer recurrence or death was 94.9% in the ESD group and 98.1% in the surgery group. Thus, surgery group had a better DFS than ESD group (p=0.002 by log-rank test), and the HR for gastric cancer recurrence or death in the surgery group compared with the ESD group was 0.26 (95% CI, 0.10-0.64; p=0.003). However, previous studies could provide only a low level of evidence because of study limitations including the retrospective study design and incomplete data of patient survival and gastric cancer recurrence during follow-up. The studies did not evaluate QoL and cost-effectiveness after ESD and surgery. Therefore, we designed a multi-center, randomized controlled trial to provide a high level of evidence for clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESD for undifferentiated type of EGC meeting the expanded indication.

Condition Undifferentiated Type, Stomach Cancer, Gastric Cancer, gastric cancers, Gastropathy, Expanded Indication of Endoscopic Resection, Gastric Carcinoma, Stomach Discomfort
Treatment Surgery, Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04890171
SponsorNational Cancer Center, Korea
Last Modified on17 September 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patients who are diagnosed with undifferentiated type EGC (signet ring cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, or poorly cohesive carcinoma) that meets the expanded indication of ESD 1) Tumor confined to the mucosa without ulcer, and size 2 cm on endoscopic evaluations 2) No evidence of lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis on abdominal CT scan
Adult patients aged 19-75 years
Patients who had willingness to sign an informed consent form

Exclusion Criteria

Patient age: < 19 years or age > 75 years
Diagnosis and active treatment for other organ cancer except carcinoma in situ and non-melanomatous skin cancer within 5 years
Previous gastrectomy or esophagectomy history
Multiple gastric cancers
Current treatment for serious medical condition which could hinder study participation including severe heart dysfunction, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, or uncontrolled infection
Inability to provide an informed consent
Inadequate conditions for study enrollment according to the evaluation of study physicians
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a study center
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact



Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Browse trials for

Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note