Can Trajectory Nor-epinephrine Infiltration Reduce Blood Loss During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)?

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    Benha University
Updated on 29 November 2021


during PCNL; A few milliliters of nor-epinephrine is injected into the intended tract after puncture of pelvicalyceal system and before its dilatation compared to injection of saline (placebo). hemoglobin change & blood loss is estimated and will compared.


All patients of are positioned in lithotomy position and 6 F open tip ureteral catheter is fixed by cystoscope. Then, A pelvicalyceal system is punctured under ultrasound and/or fluoroscopic guidance, then a 18 Gauge (G) puncture needle is introduced toward the desired calyx and a 0.038 inch guide wire is inserted. then 20 G Chiba needle is introduced alongside the puncture needle for infiltration of the whole tract by either a few milliliters of nor-epinephrine or saline. then, the tract is dilated over the guide wire, lastly an Amplatz sheath was inserted.

nephroscope is used for stones disintegration by pneumatic or laser lithotripter . Fragments are washed out or removed by forceps.

Condition Intraoperative hemorrhage
Treatment Nor-epinephine injection versus saline during PCNL, Nor-Epinephrine injection versus saline during PCNL
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05035303
SponsorBenha University
Last Modified on29 November 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

renal stones>2 cm

Exclusion Criteria

coagulopathy, congenital anomalies, active Urinary tract infections
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