Treating Non-typhoidal Salmonella Bloodstream Infections in Children Under Five in DR Congo: a Cohort Study

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    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium
Updated on 3 October 2022


With this study the researchers aim to provide observational data on the treatment efficacy of currently used antibiotic treatment regimens for NTS BSI in hospital-admitted children. The study is an observational cohort study where the antibiotic treatments used and treatment outcomes in the St. Luc general referral hospital in Kisantu health zone (Province Kongo Central, DR Congo) will be described.


In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a frequent cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) in young children, display high levels of antibiotic resistance and have a high case fatality rate (15%). In Kisantu hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), NTS account for 75% of blood culture pathogens in young children.

Currently, NTS BSI are mostly treated with third generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones. However, resistance to these antibiotics is emerging in NTS BSI. Third generation cephalosporine and fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella are identified as critical priority pathogens by the World Health Organization (WHO). To combat the developing antimicrobial resistance, rational and evidence-based antibiotic treatment of NTS BSI is crucial.

So far, there are no guidelines to treat NTS BSI in a low-resource setting. The currently used antibiotic regimens are experience-based or extrapolated from typhoid fever. The absence of dedicated studies addressing antibiotic treatment efficacy in NTS BSI in sub-Saharan African children hampers the development of evidence-based antibiotic treatment guidelines and antibiotic stewardship.

Clinical practice guidelines established for high- and middle-income countries recommend 7 - 14 days of parenteral antibiotic treatment for NTS BSI. In sub-Saharan Africa however, financial, logistic and nursing care barriers preclude such long parenteral treatment regimens.

To decrease the case fatality and combat antibiotic resistance of NTS BSI in its most affected population (i.e. children in sub-Saharan Africa), data that support appropriate antibiotic treatment (i.e. antibiotic class, dose, route and duration) are urgently needed.

The researchers aim to provide observational data on the treatment efficacy of currently used antibiotic treatment regimens for NTS BSI in hospital-admitted children.

They hypothesize that, in terms of treatment efficacy in hospital admitted children with NTS BSI, a short course of parenteral antibiotics (<7 days) with switch to oral antibiotics is not inferior to a full parenteral antibiotic course (7 days).

This study is designed as a prospective, single-center, hospital-based observational study on the efficacy of antibiotic treatment of a cohort of young children (1 month to 5 years old) with NTS BSI. Data will be collected from the enrolled children during three different study phases, i.e., upon admission, daily in-hospital follow-up and post-discharge follow-up.

Condition Salmonella Infection Non-Typhoid, Blood Stream Infections
Treatment Observational cohort
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04850677
SponsorInstitute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium
Last Modified on3 October 2022

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