Interventional Strategy for Non-culprit Lesions With Major Vulnerability Criteria at OCT in Patients With ACS

  • End date
    Jul 5, 2025
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Centro per la Lotta Contro l'Infarto - Fondazione Onlus
Updated on 6 September 2021
acute coronary syndrome


The INTERCLIMA (Interventional Strategy for Non-culprit Lesions With Major Vulnerability Criteria Identified by Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) is a multi-center, prospective, randomized trial of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based versus physiology-based (i.e. fractional flow reserve[FFR]/instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio[iFR]/resting full-cycle ratio[RFR]) treatment of intermediate (40-70% diameter stenosis at quantitative coronary angiography), non-culprit coronary lesions in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing coronary angiography. About 1400 patients with ACS will be randomized into the study at approximately 40 sites worldwide.


The optimal strategy in patients with intermediated stenosis (40-70% diameter stenosis) at coronary angiography is currently under debate. Pure angiographic stenosis evaluation is often inadequate and alternative assessments of coronary plaques entered the clinical practice, such as functional assessment (FFR/iFR/RFR) and intravascular imaging (OCT and intravascular ultrasound [IVUS]). Based on preliminary data, current American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) revascularization guidelines recommend the use of flow fractional reserve (FFR, class IIa of evidence) to assess angiographic intermediate coronary lesions in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and guide intervention. However, controversial data has recently emerged on the role of functional assessment of intermediate coronary lesions in both acute and chronic setting. On the other hand, in recent studies the presence of coronary plaques with vulnerability criteria at OCT identified patients at high risk of cardiac mortality and target vessel MI. This study aims to assess the clinical effectiveness of an OCT-based strategy to guide revascularization in non-culprit intermediate coronary stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), on the basis of the presence of morphological markers of plaque vulnerability. Patients with single intermediate coronary lesion in a non-culprit intervention-nave major coronary segment (diameter 2.5 mm) and fulfilling all inclusion/exclusion criteria will be eligible. Enrolled patients will be randomized 1:1 to either OCT or iFR/FFR/RFR based treatment. In the OCT-guided arm, non-culprit intermediate lesions will be treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with implantation of a second-generation drug eluting stent (DES) when a fibrous cap thickness (FCT) <75 m plus at least 2 of 3 other OCT criteria of plaque vulnerability (i.e., minimum lumen area [MLA] <3.5 mm2, lipid arc with circumferential extension >180, and the presence of clusters of macrophages) are detected by OCT. In the absence of the above-mentioned 4 vulnerability criteria, interventional procedures will be deferred regardless the observed MLA. In the physiology-guided arm, non-culprit intermediate lesions will be treated with PCI with implantation of a second-generation DES when an iFR or RFR 0.89 or an FFR 0.80 are measured, otherwise interventional procedures will be deferred. The primary endpoint, a composite of cardiac death and target vessel spontaneous myocardial infarction, will be assessed after 2, and 5 years.

Condition Heart disease, coronary heart diseases, Cardiac Disease, Coronary Artery Disease, coronary disease, Vascular Diseases, Ischemic Heart Disease, Cardiac Ischemia, Myocardial Ischemia, disease, coronary, Heart Disease, Coronary heart disease
Treatment Optical Coherence Tomography, iFR/FFR/RFR
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05027984
SponsorCentro per la Lotta Contro l'Infarto - Fondazione Onlus
Last Modified on6 September 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Age of at least 18 years
Diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome
Single intermediate lesion in an intervention-nave major coronary segment (diameter 2.5 mm) determining a 40-70% diameter stenosis at quantitative coronary angiography analysis with no other significant stenosis (>70%) in the same vessel
Patient informed of the nature of the study, agreeing to it, and providing written informed consent as approved by the Ethics Committee of the respective clinical study site
Life expectancy >3 years

Exclusion Criteria

Female with childbearing potential or lactating
Acute or chronic renal dysfunction (defined as creatinine greater than 2.0 mg/dl)
Advanced heart failure (NYHA III-IV)
Stroke within the previous 6 months or spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage at any time
Severe valvular disease or valvular disease likely to require surgery or percutaneous valve replacement during the trial
Coronary anatomy preventing complete imaging of the segment of interest (including at least 5 mm at both stenosis edges)
Diffusely diseased coronary artery segment or presence of 1 significant untreated non-culprit lesions (preventing correct adverse event attribution) in the coronary arteries
Prior myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] or PCI revascularization in the target coronary vessel
Coronary anatomy unsuitable for PCI
Comorbidities that might interfere with completion of the study procedures
Planned major surgery necessitating interruption of dual antiplatelet
Participating in another investigational drug or device trial that has not completed the primary endpoint or would interfere with the endpoints of this study
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