Study of the Association Between Tumor Microenvironment Macrophages and Treatment Response in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal

    Not Recruiting
  • End date
    Dec 31, 2022
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph
Updated on 5 March 2022
squamous cell carcinoma
lung cancer
chemotherapy regimen
human papillomavirus
advanced squamous cell carcinoma


Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is a relatively rare cancer (less than 3% of digestive cancers) but its incidence has been increasing in recent decades, probably because of its association with HPV (human papillomavirus) infection. Its extension is mainly locoregional pelvic by lymphatic route, rarely metastatic. The standard treatment nowadays is radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for locally advanced tumors (T2 or more corresponding to a size of 2 cm or more, or N+): mitomycin C and 5-FU (or capecitabine). While the 5-year disease control rates are excellent in localized forms, around 80%, for locally advanced tumors, the prognosis is poorer, with only 70% progression-free survival at 3 years in patients treated with radiochemotherapy. In these patients, it seems particularly interesting to understand the mechanisms of tumor resistance to treatments, in order to increase their efficacy and to propose new therapeutic targets.

The microenvironment of solid tumors, which has been extensively studied in the last two decades, is now recognized as a major factor in tumor development and invasion. Immune cells, and more particularly macrophages, represent an essential component of the tumor microenvironment, and constitute a link between innate and adaptive responses. The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and in particular M2 macrophages, with an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor action (as opposed to M1 macrophages which are on the contrary tumoricidal and pro-inflammatory), has been studied in many cancers, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. To our knowledge, it has not been studied in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

Condition Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Vulvar Dysplasia and Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Advanced Malignancies, Carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell cancer
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT05019235
SponsorGroupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph
Last Modified on5 March 2022

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