Phase I/II Study to Reduce Post-transplantation Cyclophosphamide Dosing for Older or Unfit Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Apr 30, 2027
  • participants needed
    320
  • sponsor
    National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Updated on 25 October 2022
cancer
sirolimus
total body irradiation
fludarabine
hematologic malignancy
mycophenolate mofetil
cyclophosphamide
granulocyte colony stimulating factor
cell transplantation
transplant conditioning
colony stimulating factor
neutrophil count
allogeneic transplantation
mycophenolate
Accepts healthy volunteers

Summary

Background

Certain blood cancers can be treated with blood or bone marrow transplants. Sometimes the donor cells attack the recipient's body, called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide helps reduce the risk and severity of GVHD. Researchers want to learn if using a lower dose of cyclophosphamide may reduce the drug's side effects while maintaining its effectiveness. Such an approach is being used in an ongoing clinical study at the NIH with promising results, but this approach has not been tested for transplants using lower doses of chemotherapy/radiation prior to the transplant.

Objective

To learn if using a lower dose of cyclophosphamide will help people have a successful transplant and have fewer problems and side effects.

Eligibility

Adults ages 18-85 who have a blood cancer that did not respond well to standard treatments or is at high risk for relapse without transplant, and their donors.

Design

Participants may be screened with the following:

Medical history

Physical exam

Blood and urine tests

Heart and lung tests

Body imaging scans (they may get a contrast agent)

Spinal tap

Bone marrow biopsy

Participants will be hospitalized for 4-6 weeks. They will have a central venous catheter placed in a chest or neck vein. It will be used to give medicines, transfusions, and the donor cells, and to take blood. In the week before transplant, they will get 2 chemotherapy drugs and radiation. After the transplant, they will get the study drug for 2 days. They will take other drugs for up to 2 months.

Participants must stay near NIH for 3 months after discharge for weekly study visits. Then they will have visits every 3-12 months until 5 years after transplant.

Participants and donors will give blood, bone marrow, saliva, cheek swab, urine, and stool samples for research.

Description

Background

With novel therapies for hematologic malignancies, an increasing number of older and/or less fit patients are achieving remissions, but these new therapies are not curative, making consolidation approaches with curative intent such as allogeneic transplantation necessary.

Frailty is a phenotype that predicts a patient s intolerance of physiologic stressors and may predict a patient s tolerance of intensive consolidative strategies.

Frailty phenotype, though increasing in incidence in older patients, can occur in younger patients and may predict poor survival after allogeneic transplantation.

We have yet to define the ideal allogeneic transplantation regimen for older patients or those with frailty or pre-frail phenotypes.

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) reduces rates of severe acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and safely facilitates human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched-related, HLA-matched-unrelated, HLA-mismatched-unrelated, and HLA-haploidentical HCT; it has become the most widely adopted change to transplantation platforms over the last decade.

When clinically translated, the dose (50 mg/kg/day) of PTCy used was partly extrapolated from murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched skin allografting models and was partly empirical.

In both MHC-haploidentical and MHC-disparate murine HCT models, a dose of 25 mg/kg/day was superior to 50 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4 in terms of GVHD severity and mortality. Lower dosing of PTCy also was associated with less broad reductions of T-cell numbers after PTCy and lower toxicity than higher dosing.

In patients on an NIH study using myeloablative conditioning, a dose of 25 mg/kg/day has been associated with more rapid engraftment and potentially better immune function without an increase in severe acute GVHD.

Objectives

Determine whether PTCy 25 mg/kg on days +3 and +4 can maintain adequate protection against grade III-IV acute GVHD and reduce toxicity associated with transplantation in older and/or unfit transplant recipients receiving reduced intensity conditioned allogeneic HCT.

Determine the frailty measures associated with outcomes after allogeneic transplantation.

Eligibility

Histologically or cytologically confirmed hematologic malignancy with standard indication for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Age 60-85 years, or age 18-60 years and unfit for myeloablative conditioning (MAC).

At least one potentially suitable HLA-matched related, HLA-haploidentical donor, HLA-matched unrelated, or (Bullet)5/10 HLA-mismatched unrelated donor.

Karnofsky performance score (Bullet)60

Adequate organ function

Design

Open-label, multi-center, non-randomized, phase I/II study

There will be four separate arms: HLA-matched elderly, HLA-matched young/infirm, HLA-partially matched elderly, and HLA-partially matched young/infirm

All subjects will receive nonmyeloablative conditioning consisting of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation; GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy 25 mg/kg on days +3 and +4, MMF, and sirolimus; and bone marrow as the stem cell source.

Subjects will be evaluated for development of grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) at day +60 as the dose-limiting toxicities for the Simon two-stage design. Dose escalation of PTCy will be permitted within each arm if stopping rules are met at the 25 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4 dose.

Frailty assessments will be performed prior to transplantation conditioning and serially after allogeneic transplantation.

Details
Condition Hematologic Neoplasms
Treatment cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, filgrastim, Fludarabine, MESNA, Sirolimus, allogeneic HSCT, Total Body Irradiation (TBI)
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04959175
SponsorNational Cancer Institute (NCI)
Last Modified on25 October 2022

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Related donor (age >=12) deemed suitable and eligible, and willing to donate, per clinical
evaluations, who are additionally willing to donate blood, bone marrow, and stool for
research
Related donors will be evaluated in accordance with existing institutional Standard
Policies and Procedures for determination of eligibility and suitability for clinical
donation
Women of child-bearing potential (WOCBP) and men must agree to use adequate contraception
(hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry and for at
least 60 days after donation

Exclusion Criteria

None
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