CASPAR - A Phase III Trial of Enzalutamide and Rucaparib as a Novel Therapy in First-Line Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CASPAR)

  • End date
    Sep 12, 2026
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology
Updated on 12 October 2022


This randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial is evaluating the benefit of rucaparib and enzalutamide combination therapy versus enzalutamide alone for the treatment of men with prostate cancer that has spread to other places in the body (metastatic) and has become resistant to testosterone-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant). Enzalutamide helps fight prostate cancer by blocking the use of testosterone by the tumor cells for growth. Poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, such as rucaparib, fight prostate cancer by prevent tumor cells from repairing their DNA. Giving enzalutamide and rucaparib may make patients live longer or prevent their cancer from growing or spreading for a longer time, or both. It may also help doctors learn if a mutation in any of the homologous recombination DNA repair genes is helpful to decide which treatment is best for the patient.



I. To compare radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS) with enzalutamide and rucaparib camsylate (rucaparib) versus enzalutamide alone for patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer commencing first-line therapy.

II. (PK substudy) To evaluate the safety and tolerability of rucaparib and enzalutamide combination III. (Quality of life substudy) To compare quality of life as measured by FACT-P Trial Outcome Index in patients with mCRPC who receive enzalutamide plus rucaparib vs enzalutamide alone at the 12-month time point (primary QOL timepoint).


I. To compare rPFS and OS with enzalutamide and rucaparib versus enzalutamide alone within homologous-recombination repair (HRR) aberrant and wild-type patients.

II. To evaluate the effects of concurrent administration of rucaparib on time to unequivocal clinical progression.

III. To evaluate the effects of concurrent administration of rucaparib on best radiographic response using Prostate Cancer Working Group 3 (PCWG3) criteria.

IV. To evaluate the effects of concurrent administration of rucaparib on duration of overall response.

V. To evaluate the effects of concurrent administration of rucaparib on prostate specific antigen (PSA) response rate.

VI. To evaluate the effects of concurrent administration of rucaparib on best response by serum PSA by months 7 and 13.

VII. To evaluate the effects of concurrent administration of rucaparib on time to first symptomatic skeletal event (SSE).

VIII. To evaluate the effects of concurrent administration of rucaparib on safety and tolerability as measured by National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria; and trial discontinuation for treatment emergent toxicities.

IX. To compare performance of plasma-based and tissue-based genomic profiling in detection of homologous-recombination repair mutation (HRRm) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).


In the randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study, patients will be randomized to 1 of 2


ARM I: Patients will receive enzalutamide orally (PO) once daily (QD) and rucaparib PO twice daily (BID). Patients who did not undergo bilateral orchiectomy will also receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) consisting of leuprolide acetate intramuscularly (IM), goserelin acetate subcutaneously (SC) every 12 weeks or degarelix SC. Cycles will repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ARM II: Patients will receive enzalutamide PO QD and placebo PO BID. Patients who did not undergo bilateral orchiectomy will also receive ADT consisting of leuprolide acetate IM, goserelin acetate SC every 12 weeks or degarelix SC. Cycles will repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After the completion of study treatment, patients will be followed every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months for 3 years.

Condition Castration-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma, Metastatic Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v8, Stage IVA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8, Stage IVB Prostate Cancer AJCC v8
Treatment goserelin acetate, questionnaire administration, quality-of-life assessment, Placebo, Enzalutamide, Leuprolide Acetate, Degarelix, Rucaparib Camsylate
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04455750
SponsorAlliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology
Last Modified on12 October 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Histologic/cytologic documentation of prostate adenocarcinoma
Adequate archival tumor specimen or archival slides must be available to be tested as part of the trial screening (most recent metastatic site biopsy preferred, but primary prostate biopsy allowed if metastatic biopsy is not available or inadequate. A new biopsy is not required for pre-registration in the trial as long as sufficient archival tissue is available). Due to significant variability between tests, results from an existing targeted next-generation exome sequencing test may not be used for this trial
Progressive disease must be demonstrated at study entry while the patient is on continuous androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or status post orchiectomy. Progressive disease is defined as one or more of the following criteria
PSA progression, defined by at least 2 consecutive rising PSA values at a minimum of 1-week intervals with the most recent PSA value being 1.0 ng/mL or higher, if confirmed PSA rise is the only indication of progression. Patients who received an anti-androgen must have PSA progression after withdrawal of anti-androgen therapy (>=4 weeks since last flutamide, bicalutamide or nilutamide, apalutamide or darolutamide)
Radiographic progression per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 for soft tissue lesions
Bone metastasis progression per Prostate Cancer Working Group 3 (PCWG3) criteria
Measurable or non-measurable metastatic disease
No prior therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, defined as a treatment given for prostate cancer with radiographically-detectable metastasis and a serum testosterone level less than 50 ng/dl (1.73 nmol/L) at the time of registration
>= 2 weeks or 5 half-lives (whichever is shorter) since prior therapy with flutamide, dutasteride, bicalutamide, niltamide, finasteride, aminoglutethimide, estrogens, cytoproterone, chemotherapy, abiraterone, apalutamide, or darolutamide
>= 4 weeks or 5 half-lives (whichever is shorter) since any prior investigational therapy
>= 4 weeks since a major surgery or radiation
No prior therapy with enzalutamide, rucaparib or any other PARP inhibitor, or platinum chemotherapy
Prior docetaxel and/or novel anti-androgen use is allowed only if given in the hormone-sensitive non-metastatic or metastatic, or castration-resistant non-metastatic disease setting
Patient must have discontinued all previous treatments for cancer (except ADT and bone anti-responsive therapies such as denosumab or zoledronic acid) and must have recovered from all acute side effects of prior therapy or surgical procedures to =< grade 1 or baseline prior to randomization, with the exception of fatigue, alopecia or peripheral neuropathy
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,500/mm^3
Platelet count >= 100,000/mm^3
Hemoglobin >= 10 g/dL
Serum testosterone =< 50 ng/dl (=< 1.73 nmol/L)
Serum creatinine =< 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
Aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transferase (ALT) =< 2.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
No clinically suspected central nervous system (CNS) (leptomeningeal or parenchymal) metastases. Patients with a history of CNS metastasis(s) will be allowed as long (1) as the metastatic site(s) were adequately treated as demonstrated by clinical and radiographic improvement, AND (2) the patient has recovered from the intervention (no residual adverse events > Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE] grade 1), AND (3) the patient has remained without occurrence of new or worsening CNS symptoms for a period of 28 days prior to pre-registration
No known or suspected history of cytopenia (low white blood cell [WBC], hemoglobin or platelet count) of greater than 3 months duration with an unknown cause, myelodysplastic syndrome, or hematologic malignancies
No blood product transfusion, granulocyte/granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF/GM-CSF), or erythropoietin/thrombopoietin use within 14 days of pre-registration
No history of syncope of cardiovascular etiology, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia, history of Mobitz II second degree or third degree heart block without a permanent pacemaker in place, myocardial ischemia or infarction, severe or unstable angina, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV heart failure, or stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) within the past 3 months
No history of seizure or any condition that may increase the patient's seizure risk (e.g., prior cortical stroke, significant brain trauma) within 2 years
No clinically active or chronic liver disease resulting in moderate/severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B or C), ascites, coagulopathy or bleeding due to liver dysfunction
No clinical, laboratory or radiographic evidence of an active bacterial, fungal, or viral infection requiring treatment at the time of registration
No planned palliative procedures for alleviation of bone pain such as radiation therapy or surgery
No untreated spinal cord compression or evidence of spinal metastases with a risk of impending fracture or spinal cord compression
No known or suspected contraindications or hypersensitivity to enzalutamide, rucaparib, or to any of the excipients
No known or suspected gastrointestinal disorder affecting absorption of oral medications
No prior malignancy for which the last treatment was given within the past 2 years, or any active concurrent malignancy with the exception of non-melanomatous localized skin cancers (such as squamous or basal cell carcinoma of the skin)
Any concomitant medications that are strong inhibitors of CYP2C8 or inducers of CYP3A4 cytochrome enzymes must be discontinued prior to registration. Dose adjustments per Food and Drug Administration (FDA) label or clinical judgement should be considered for any concomitant medications that are moderate inhibitors of CYP2C8 or inducers of CYP3A4 cytochrome enzymes
Any concomitant medications that are substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 cytochrome enzymes should be monitored closely per clinical judgement of the treating physician
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