Educating Brain Tumor Patients Using Patient-specific Actual-size Three-dimensional Printed Models

  • End date
    Dec 15, 2023
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Sümeyye Sezer
Updated on 29 July 2021
brain tumor


Patient education plays an essential role in patient-centered care as it enhances patient satisfaction and information comprehension. However, about 40-80% of the information patients receive from healthcare professionals is forgotten and about half of the information patients remember is incorrect. To give informed consent, patients must be able to understand and recall the discussed information correctly. This is especially important in brain tumor patients, in which different treatment options determine outcome and risks. The goal of treatment in brain tumors is resection as completely as possible, without damaging healthy brain tissue. To this end, patients must understand the complex relation of the tumor to healthy brain tissue. This relation is different in each patient and three-dimensional (3D) in nature. Current two-dimensional visual tools lack the ability to properly display these complex 3D relations. In this study, we will investigate the effect of the use of 3D models in patient education, taking into account patient specific factors that might act as confounders. We will conduct a case control, multi-center study in the Radboud University Medical Center (Radboudumc) Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC). Patients will be enrolled in the control group until inclusion for the control group is completed (n=30), after which patients will be enrolled in the intervention group (n=30). Patients will be cognitively tested using the Amsterdam Cognition Scale (ACS). After the consultation with their neurosurgeon, patients will be asked to fill out two questionnaires, consisting of two parts (patient experiences and information recall), one week apart.


Objectives The main goal of this project is to evaluate the role of 3D models on different aspects of patient education (patient experiences and information recall) in patients with brain tumors by comparing these to the use of standard 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. A secondary goal is to gain more insight into the experiences of the close ones of the patients.

Study population We will conduct a case control, multi-center study in the Radboud University Medical Center (Radboudumc) Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC). Patients will be enrolled in the control group until inclusion for the control group is completed (n=30), after which patients will be enrolled in the intervention group (n=30). The control group will consist of patients who will be informed using MR images during pre-operative consultations. The intervention group will be informed using personalized, life-size 3D models during pre-operative consultations. Inclusion time is estimated to be around 2 years.

Sample size Previous studies on this topic are scarce. In our experimental study on this subject [Sezer et al. 2020], we found an improvement of 5% (minimum expected difference, D) in information recall when using 3D models compared to 2D models. The standard deviation (SD) for information recall based on this study is approximately 5. With a significance criterion of 0.05 and power of 0.90 we calculated a total sample size of 42. For this study, however, we expect to find a smaller effect size due to the confounding factors (cognitive functioning, emotional status) which were eliminated in our experimental study in healthy individuals. Therefore we want to enroll 30 patients in each group (total sample size 60).

Study procedures Eligible patients will be asked to participate by their clinician or nurse practitioner who will they will receive an information letter and informed consent (attachment E1.1). The researcher will contact the patient to officially collect the informed consent form. Afterwards, the researcher will send out the link to the questionnaires collecting the baseline characteristics, emotional status questionnaire (HADS) and the ACS. The patient will be instructed to finish these questionnaires before the pre-operative consultation. Pre-operative preparation will be the same for the control and intervention group. The only difference will be the visual tool used in the pre-operative consult. Afterwards, the patient will be called by the researcher on the same or following day. A link will be sent out with the questionnaires on experiences, information recall and chosen treatment for the brain tumor. All questionnaires will be collected through Castor EDC 2019.

The clinician will also be asked to fill out the questionnaire on information recall.

After the pre-operative consultation, we will ask the participant whether we can contact their close one. After reading the information letter and signing the informed consent the close one will receive the online questionnaires testing information recall and experiences. Both questionnaires will be collected through Castor EDC 2019.

Condition Patient Education, Oligodendroglioma, Astrocytoma, Glioma, Glioblastoma Multiforme, Malignant neoplasm of brain, Gliomas, Brain Tumor, glioblastoma, glial tumor, brain tumors, Decision Making, Shared, Decision Making, Shared, Decision Making, Shared
Treatment Three-dimensional printed model
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04970615
SponsorSümeyye Sezer
Last Modified on29 July 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patient with a brain tumor
functional imaging (MRI, functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)) requested for pre-operative planning

Exclusion Criteria

Inadequate understanding of the Dutch language
Inability to independently use a computer
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a site
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact


Preferred Language
Other Language
Please verify that you are not a bot.

Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Browse trials for

Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note