ImproviNg rEnal Outcomes Following Coronary angiograPhy and/or percuTaneoUs coroNary intErventions (NEPTUNE)

  • End date
    Jul 31, 2027
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Montreal Heart Institute
Updated on 12 August 2023


The NEPTUNE triple-blind, active-placebo, adaptive, pragmatic, randomized trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a new intra-venous hydration strategy guided by left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), amount of contrast used, and baseline renal function, to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and patient-oriented clinical endpoints in all-comer patients undergoing coronary angiogram and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).


All-comer patients undergoing a coronary angiogram and/or a PCI and meeting the eligibility criteria will be randomized to be treated with either a hydration strategy personalized to LVEDP, amount of contrast used, and baseline renal function, or to standard, non-tailored hydration (1:1 allocation ratio stratified by GFR ≥60 vs. <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). The operators (interventional cardiologists and fellows) and the participants will be blinded to the treatment allocation during the procedure. Serum creatinine will be measured at 48 hours, 7 days, and 6 months after the procedure, and the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) (primary endpoint) and of major adverse renal and cardiovascular events will be evaluated by a blinded and independent expert adjudication committee.

All participants will be treated with a commercially available 0.9% NaCl solution (normal saline, NS) infusion at a rate of 3 mL/kg/h for one hour prior to the procedure. In both study groups, LVEDP will be measured at the beginning of the procedure by introducing a catheter in the left ventricle, as performed routinely in clinical practice. In the experimental group, NS infusion rate will be adjusted based on LVEDP for the whole duration of the procedure (<13 mmHg: 5 ml/kg/h; 13-18 mmHg: 3 ml/kg/h; >18 mmHg: 1.5 ml/kg/h), or for one hour, whichever is the longest. After the procedure, and for a duration of 4 hours, the hydration rate will be adjusted based on the (contrast volume:estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) ratio, according to the following scheme: 1.5 ml/kg/h if contrast volume/eGFR ratio <2.0; 3 ml/kg/h for contrast volume/eGFR ratio 2.0-2.9; 5 ml/kg/h for contrast volume/eGFR ratio ≥3.0. In the control group, infusion rate will be of 1.5 ml/kg/h during the procedure, and for the 4 following hours.

This study will follow an adaptive design in which the primary endpoint will be shifted to a more patient-oriented endpoint at the time of a single interim analysis according to pre-specified criteria established in the protocol. The adaptive design will allow to stop the trial if the experimental strategy is futile to reduce the rates of CI-AKI, and to continue on an operationally seamless manner if the experimental strategy is beneficial to reduce CI-AKI, transitioning to major adverse renal and cardiovascular endpoints (MARCE) as the primary endpoint.

Condition Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury
Treatment Standard of Care, Personalized hydration strategy
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04936607
SponsorMontreal Heart Institute
Last Modified on12 August 2023


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Age ≥18 years
Planned coronary angiogram and/or PCI
Willingness to participate and to attend study visits
Expected life expectancy ≥6 months

Exclusion Criteria

Cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic shock at the time of the procedure
Emergent procedures (e.g. STEMI)
Iodine-based contrast media received within 2 days
Presence of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP)
Cardiac arrest within 24 hours
Pre-procedural AKI defined using the modified KDIGO criteria within 7 days
Renal replacement therapy
Severe aortic or mitral disease
LVEF <30%
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