Liposomal Cytarabine, Daunorubicin, and Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin for the Treatment of Relapsed Refractory Pediatric Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  • End date
    May 1, 2024
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Updated on 4 October 2022


This phase I trial studies the best dose and side effects of liposomal cytarabine, daunorubicin, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin in treating pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia that has returned after treatment (relapsed) or does not respond to treatment (refractory). Chemotherapy drugs, such as liposomal cytarabine and daunorubicin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is a monoclonal antibody, called gemtuzumab, linked to a toxic agent called ozogamicin. Gemtuzumab attaches to CD33 positive cancer cells in a targeted way and delivers ozogamicin to kill them. Giving liposomal cytarabine and daunorubicin and gemtuzumab ozogamicin may help to control the disease.



I. To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and safety of liposomal cytarabine and daunorubicin (CPX-351) in combination with gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) in relapsed refractory pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).


I. To determine the preliminary assessment of efficacy by overall response (OR), including complete remission (CR), CR with incomplete blood count recovery and partial remission), overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS) and duration of response (DOR) of pediatric patients treated with this combination.


I. To determine the minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment with this combination and its impact in long-term outcome (OS and EFS).

II. To determine the effect of the level of pre-treatment expression of CD33 with response to this combination.

III. To determine the effect of this treatment combination on responding pediatric patients transitioning to hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) i.e., number and percentage of patients that are able to transition to HSCT.


INDUCTION 1 (28 days): Patients receive CPX-351 intravenously (IV) over 90 minutes on days 1, 3, and 5 and GO IV over 2 hours on day 1 in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

INDUCTION 2: Patients who do not attain a defined clinical response after cycle Induction 1 receive CPX-351 IV on days 1 and 3 and GO IV over 2 hours on day 1 in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

CONSOLIDATION: Beginning 4 weeks after last induction, patients receive CPX-351 IV over 90 minutes on days 1 and 3 and GO IV over 2 hours on day 1 in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 28 days.

Condition Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Treatment gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Liposome-encapsulated Daunorubicin-Cytarabine
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04915612
SponsorM.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Last Modified on4 October 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Pediatric patients with diagnosis of CD33 positive (> 3%)
Newly diagnosed secondary AML
Relapsed refractory acute myeloid leukemia by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria Patients must have >= 5% blasts in the bone marrow as assessed by morphology or flow cytometry. However, if an adequate bone marrow sample cannot be obtained, patients may be enrolled if there is unequivocal evidence of leukemia with >= 5% blasts in the peripheral blood
Pediatric Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who progress to AML are
Performance status: Lansky >= 50 for patients who are =< 16 years old and Karnofsky >= 50% for patients who are > 16 years old
eligible at the time of diagnosis of AML regardless of any prior therapy for
Age =< 21 years of age
Total serum bilirubin =< 2 x upper limit of normal (ULN). Patients with known Gilbert's syndrome may have a total bilirubin up to =< 3 x ULN
Serum creatinine =< 2.0 mg/dl
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) =< 3 x ULN; =< 5 x ULN in case of suspected leukemic liver involvement
Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum or urine beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) pregnancy test result within 14 days prior to the first dose of study drugs and must agree to use one of the following effective contraception methods during the study and for 30 days following the last dose of study drug. Effective methods of birth control include
Birth control pills, skin patches, shots, implants (placed under the skin by a health care provider)
Intrauterine devices (IUDs)
Condom or occlusive cap (diaphragm or cervical/vault caps) used with Spermicide
Males, need to inform the doctor right away if the partner becomes pregnant or
suspects pregnancy. While in this study and for 30 days after the last
treatment the patient should not donate sperm for the purposes of
reproduction. He will need to use a condom while in this study and for 30 days
after the last treatment

Exclusion Criteria

History of another primary invasive malignancy that has not been definitively treated and in remission. Patients with non-melanoma skin cancers or with carcinomas in situ are eligible regardless of the time from diagnosis (including concomitant diagnoses)
Presence of clinically significant uncontrolled central nervous system (CNS) pathology such as epilepsy, childhood seizure, paresis, aphasia, stroke, severe brain injuries, organic brain syndrome, or psychosis
Evidence of active cerebral/meningeal disease. Patients may have history of CNS leukemic involvement if definitively treated with prior therapy and no evidence of active disease at the time of consent with at least 2 consecutive spinal fluid negative assessments for residual leukemia and negative imaging (imaging required only if previously showing evidence of CNS leukemia not otherwise documented by spinal fluid assessment)
Patients with a cardiac ejection fraction (as measured by either multigated acquisition scan [MUGA] or echocardiogram) < 50% are excluded
Patients with total cumulative doses of non-liposomal daunorubicin, or other anthracycline equivalent, greater than 450 mg/m^2
Patients with uncontrolled, active infections (viral, bacterial, or fungal). Infections controlled on concurrent anti-microbial agents are acceptable, and anti-microbial prophylaxis per institutional guidelines are acceptable
Known active hepatitis B or C infection, or known seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Liver cirrhosis or other serious active liver disease or with suspected active alcohol abuse
Active acute/chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) requiring systemic treatment; or receiving immunosuppression for GvHD prophylaxis within 2 weeks from the start of study therapy
Prior chemotherapy/radiotherapy/investigational therapy within 2 weeks before the start of study drugs with the following exception
To reduce the circulating blast count or palliation: Single dose intravenous cytarabine or hydroxyurea. No washout necessary for these agents
Females who are pregnant or lactating
Male or female subjects of childbearing potential, unwilling to use an approved, effective means of contraception in accordance with institution's standards
Other severe, uncontrolled acute or chronic medical or psychiatric condition or laboratory abnormality that in the opinion of the Investigator may increase the risk associated with study participation or investigational product administration or may interfere with the interpretation of study results and/or would make the patient inappropriate for enrollment into this study
Patients with Down syndrome, acute promyelocytic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, or bone marrow failure syndromes are not eligible
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