Cross-cultural Translation of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) Into Local Languages of Pakistan

  • End date
    Dec 27, 2022
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Riphah International University
Updated on 20 April 2022
back pain
low back pain
musculoskeletal disorders


Descriptive analytical study to translate the Oswestry Disability Index into local languages of Pakistan that are, Pashto, Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Balochi languages. Along with validation of the translated versions by evaluating their validity and reliability in the people of Pakistan, speaking respective languages and suffering from low back pain. No such study has been previously conducted in the Pakistan region which translates the scale and follows the proper cross-cultural adaptation.

Condition or disease: Musculoskeletal disorders and disabilities caused by Low back pain, Non-probability Purposive Sampling would be used. The study will be conducted in relevant areas of Pakistan.


As in the original study the main purpose of the Oswestry Disability Index is explained as to assess pain-related disability in persons with low back pain (LBP). The target population for the Oswestry are 3: acute, subacute, and chronic back pain client groups; with various conservative, surgical, and behavioural intervention groups.

The Oswestry Disability Index is one of the principal condition-specific outcome measures used for the investigation of low back musculoskeletal disorders. It is a self-administered questionnaire and consists of ten sections that are designed to assess the limitations of various daily life activities.

Each section is scored on a 0-5 scale, 5 is for maximum disability. The index is calculated by dividing the total score by the total possible score, which is multiplied by 100 and expressed as a percentage. Thus, for every unanswered question, the denominator is reduced by 5. If a patient marks two or more statements in a question, the highest-scoring statement is recorded as a true indication of disability. The questionnaire takes 3.5-5 min to complete andapproximately1 min to score.

At present worldwide there are a lot of health care workers who are using the Oswestry Disability Index for low back pain assessment and this scale is also providing good measurement but this scale is in the English language and there are a lot of people here in Pakistan who don't understand English. Pakistan is a country with different languages and cultures. The most commonly spoken and understood languages in Pakistan are Urdu the national language of Pakistan, Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Balochi. Therefore it is highly needed to translate this questioner into different languages so that the patient would be able to answer them easily according to their understanding. The validity and reliability of the translated versions will also be checked.

The translation and cultural adaptation processes would start after obtaining approval from the developer of the original Oswestry Disability Index scale. This would be done according to WHO guidelines. Translation will be done by symmetrical category. The purpose will be to gain uniformity in the translation of tool in both the Target language and Source language. This will involve 5 steps. (Forward translation, synthesis 1, Back translation, synthesis 2 and pilot testing.) Phase 2 would be done according to the standard guidelines in which psychometric properties will be measured.

Condition Low Back Pain
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04852952
SponsorRiphah International University
Last Modified on20 April 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patient both female and male having age group equal or >18\
Patients should be capable to complete the questionnaire without any help
Diagnosed with nonspecific low back pain for more than 3 months

Exclusion Criteria

Any serious conditions like neurological conditions which would not allow the patient to fill the questionnaire independently, any infection, tumour, spinal surgery, or any other rheumatological disease will be excluded
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