Efficacy and Safety of High Dose Aprepitant Treatment in Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • days left to enroll
    10
  • participants needed
    24
  • sponsor
    PlusVitech S.L.
Updated on 13 May 2021

Summary

Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death in worldwide. It is projected that the vast majority, approximately 80% -85% of all lung cancer diagnosis is Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Although there are significant improvements in the treatment of Lung Cancer in recent years, there is still an unmet medical need for a specific population which have advanced NSCLC and mostly is refractory to existing treatments. NK-1 antagonists are generally safe and well-tolerated drugs and approved for the treatment of chemotherapy induced vomiting and nausea. However, the recent findings in preclinical studies and preliminary results of some case reports have suggested that their potential in cancer treatment may not be limited to only antiemetic effects.

In addition to the role of NK-1 pathway in emesis, the neuropeptide substance P (SP) binds to Neurokinin-1(NK-1) receptor and this binding regulates the carcinogenic cell proliferation, exerts an antiapoptotic effect, stimulates cell migration that leads to invasion and metastasis of tumor cells and lastly stimulates neoangiogenesis via endothelial cell proliferation. In this regard, the antitumoral effects of NK-1 antagonists against different types of cancer are a leading area of research interest and need for further investigation.

Currently, there are three NK-1 receptor antagonists approved by health authorities: Aprepitant (Emend), its pro-drug, fosaprepitant (Ivemend) and rolapitant (Varubi). All of these drugs are non-peptid NK antagonists and have lipophilic properties. Therefore, they are not degraded by peptidase and can cross the blood-brain barrier (4). In addition to the potential effects of NK-1 antagonists in tumor area, their penetration to central nervous system may also prevent from or reduce the brain metastasis.

The long term use of aprepitant as off-label is relatively common. In several case reports, long term use of aprepitant, up to 18 months, was successfully demonstrated in the treatment of refractory nausea and vomiting due to gastroparesis or other unexplained reasons. Additionally, in a very recent publication, it was reported that for the nausea and vomiting associated gastroparesis, long-term off label use of aprepitant was successfully received and well tolerated by three children (5 to 19 month-old) in the course of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

In the light of findings in preclinical studies, the antitumor effects of NK-1 antagonists are dose-dependent and the higher doses than approved antiemetic effective dose are need to achieve the antitumor activity. For aprepitant which will be used in present study, it has been recommended >20 mg/kg/day and prolonged use for antitumor activity. In a case report, prolonged use of standard aprepitant dose in a patient with metastatic breast cancer, had resulted with a reduction in CA153 tumor marker levels. In another recently published case report, a patient with lung cancer was treated with combination of aprepitant (1140 mg/day) and radiotherapy for 45 days, it has been reported that the tumor massed had disappeared without any side effect related to aprepitant treatment. It is fact that the evidence is not clear yet and further investigation in clinical trial settings is still needed for the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of high doses and long-term use of aprepitant, especially when administered alone to determine its own effect.

Details
Condition Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Advanced Cancer, Refractory Cancer, Cancer Refractory, cancer advanced, nsclc
Treatment Aprepitant
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04840004
SponsorPlusVitech S.L.
Last Modified on13 May 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Female or male with age > 18 years' old Personally signed and dated informed
consent that indicating that the participant ( or a legal representative) has
been informed of all aspects of the study Histologically or cytologically
confirmed non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) NSCLC patients who are not
suitable for surgery or radical radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or who have
failed to or are intolerable for standard treatment in local advanced or
metastatic NSCLC Diagnosis of a metastatic or locally advanced NSCLC with
molecular profile EGFR (-), ALK (-) and ROS-1 (-), refractory to existing
treatments Evidence of disease radiological measurable. Defined as at least
one target lesion that can be accurately measured by imaging, at least one
dimension as 20 mm with conventional computed tomography (CT), 10 mm with
spiral CT scan (15mm for lymph node) Absence of untreated or symptomatic brain
metastases or that requires the use of steroids
Life expectancy of at least three months in the opinion of investigators ECOG
performance status of 0-1 Time since last treatment received: 3 weeks from
last QT cycle or 6 weeks if nitrosiureas, at least 2 weeks from the last RT
session before the first administration of study drug (The administration of
palliative radiotherapy for bone pain is allowed by any time)
Laboratory results required at the screening visit
Neutrophils> 1500 / mm3 Haemoglobin> 9.0g / dl Platelets> 100,000 / mm3 Total
bilirubin <1.5 times above the normal ranges Transaminases: AST, ALT <2 times
above the normal ranges, If there are liver metastases <5 times above normal
values
Serum creatinine <1.5 times above the normal ranges Female participants
childbearing potential, must have a negative pregnancy test

Exclusion Criteria

Pregnant female patients, Breastfeeding female patients Patients unable to
meet the requirements (inclusion criteria) of the study Know hypersensitivity
history of allergic or anaphylactic reaction to any NK-1 antagonist ECOG
performance status 2 Any acute, chronic or psychiatric medical condition or
laboratory abnormality that may increase the risk associated with the
participation or aprepitant administration in the study or may interfere with
interpretation of the results, and in judgment of the investigator, would make
the participant inappropriate for entry into this study
Current history of alcoholism or drug addiction to DSM-IV criteria within 12
months prior to screening
Patients with major organ dysfunctions and heart disease Patients with active
tuberculosis Participation in any other clinical studies (phases I - IV)
within 1 month or 5 half-lives, or participation in any clinical study of NK-1
antagonists within 1 year of screening visit
Subjects who are directly involved in the conduct of the study, and their
family members, site staff members supervised by study investigators
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