Ivabradine for Heart Rate Control In Septic Shock

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  • sponsor
    Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris
Updated on 20 July 2021


Septic shock is a major health problem, with several million cases annually worldwide and a mortality approaching 45%. Tachycardia is associated with excess mortality during septic shock. This pejorative effect could be related to the increase in cardiac metabolic demand, impaired cardiac diastolic function, and/or poorer tolerance of administered exogenous catecholamines. Recent studies suggest that controlling the heart rate with the use of beta blockers has beneficial effects on the morbidity and mortality of septic shock. However, the negative effects of beta-blockers on cardiac contractility and blood pressure complicate their use during septic shock, particularly because about one-half of patients exhibit a septic-associated systolic dysfunction, which often requires the use of inotropes.

Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of If channels in the sinoatrial node. It is a pure bradycardic agent with no deleterious effect on other aspects of cardiac function (contractility, conduction and repolarization) nor on blood pressure. Ivabradine can therefore alleviate sinus tachycardia without negative inotropic effects nor hypotension. Moreover, the improvement in diastolic function (ventricular filling) with ivabradine may increase stroke volume, even in case of severe impairment of systolic function. Controlling sinus tachycardia with ivabradine during septic shock would allow reducing cardiac metabolic demand (and potentially associated ischemic events) and improving the chronotropic tolerance of exogenous catecholamines. The effectiveness of ivabradine in controlling the heart rate was demonstrated in various clinical settings such as coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Encouraging preliminary data are reported in critically ill patients.

Condition septic shock, Toxic Shock Syndrome
Treatment Placebo, Ivabradine
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04031573
SponsorAssistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris
Last Modified on20 July 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

years of age or older
Proven or suspected site of infection
Septic shock (defined as hypotension unresponsive to fluid resuscitation and requiring vasopressor treatment to maintain adequate blood pressure) for at least 6 hours and less than 24 hours
In sinus rhythm with heart rate 95 bpm at time of randomization
Informed consent obtained in accordance with local regulations
Affiliation to a social security regime

Exclusion Criteria

Age < 18 years
Cardiac arrythmia, conduction disorder, sinus syndrome ("sick sinus syndrome"), sino-atrial block; 3rd degree atrioventricular block
Cardiogenic shock or unstable or acute heart failure, without proven or suspected infection
Acute myocardial infarction with angiographic documentation; CCS class II angina pectoris
Refractory shock with systolic arterial pressure <90 mm Hg despite the use of high doses of vasopressors (norepinephrine BASE or epinephrine BASE > 2.4 g/kg/min; these doses should be multiplied by two for noradrenaline salt (tartrate or bitartrate)
Co-treatment with drugs inducing bradycardia, QT lengthening or strong inhibition of CYP4503A4, pacemaker, defibrillator, kalemia <3 mM
Known pregnancy, breast feeding, women with of childbearing potential will be tested for pregnancy and excluded if pregnant
Known allergy to ivabradine or to any of the excipients, retinitis pigmentosa, congenital galactosemia, lactase deficiency, glucose or galactose malabsorption
Severe renal failure (creatinine clearance <15 ml/min) or hepatic failure (prothrombin time <20%)
Enteral feeding impossible, vomiting, congenital galactosemia, lactase deficiency, glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome
Tachycardia due to hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma or severe anemia (<7 g/dL)
Prior enrolment in the trial, participation in another interventional study on septic shock
Known legal incapacity (patients under guardianship or curators)
Decision to limit full care taken before obtaining informed consent
Patient under state emergency medical help
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