Post Transplant High-Dose Cy as GvHD Prophylaxis in 1 HLA Mismatched Unrelated HSCT for Myeloid Malignancies

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Dec 1, 2022
  • participants needed
    78
  • sponsor
    Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo
Updated on 27 August 2021

Summary

The experimental treatment consists in the application of a therapeutic strategy with post Transplant High-Dose Cyclophosphamide as GvHD Prophylaxis in Patients Receiving 1-Antigen/Allele HLA Mismatched (7/8 matched) Unrelated Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myeloid Malignancies.

Description

The experimental treatment consists in the application of a therapeutic strategy with post Transplant High-Dose Cyclophosphamide as GvHD Prophylaxis in Patients Receiving 1-Antigen/Allele HLA Mismatched (7/8 matched) Unrelated Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myeloid Malignancies Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a potentially curative therapy for a variety of hematologic malignancies due to two separate components: chemo/radiotherapy administered before the transplant (conditioning regimen) and the presence of immunocompetent cells in the graft, capable of inducing a "graft-versus-malignancy effect" also known as "GvL" effect. However, this immune-reaction usually carries the risk of detrimental effects seen as a multi-organ syndrome known as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), which remains the most feared complication of Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. GvHD may be given to disparities between donor and recipient in presence of gene mismatches in the Major Histocompatibility Complex, also known as Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) system, or in any minor histocompatibility antigen. Thus, GvHD is obviously more common (and possibly more severe) in patients transplanted from HLA-mismatched donors as compared with those receiving grafts from HLA-matched donors.

A major limitation of allo-HSCT is the availability of a donor given that only a small percentage of patients has a HLA identical family donor. For the majority of patients (approximately 70%) who lack a HLA-identical sibling, alternative donors include HLA-matched unrelated donors and cord blood units. The chance of identifying a suitable marrow unrelated donor (MUD) in the international voluntary donor registries is limited by the frequency of a certain HLA genotype in the general population.

One of the alternative options in such cases is the use of a HLA-mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD). HLA-mismatching is defined as the presence of unshared antigens/alleles in recipient-donor pairs for HLA-A, -B, -C or DRB1 loci.

Patients undergoing MUD or MMUD transplants usually receive an intensified three-drug immunosuppressive regimen: anti-thymocyte globulin in addition to the standard platform of a calcineurine-inhibitor and an anti-metabolite.

The effect of HLA mismatches on clinical outcomes has been investigated in several studies. Single HLA mismatches at HLA-A, -B, -C, or -DRB1 locus (7/8 HLA-matched) were associated with lower overall survival and disease free survival, higher non-relapse mortality, and higher incidence of acute GvHD as compared with 8/8 HLA-matched pairs.

Many clinical trials suggest that high-dose Cy administrated after allogeneic HSCT didn't cause prolonged aplasia due toxicity on donor stem cells; could prevent rejection due to HLA-disparity and could be effective in preventing GvHD, allowing adequate immune-reconstitution.

With this study the investigators plan to investigate if post-transplant high-dose Cy, with a calcineurine inhibitor and mycophenolate, could reduce acute GvHD rates and infectious complications improving clinical outcomes of MMUD transplants in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

Details
Condition Myeloid Malignancies
Treatment GVHD Prophylaxis
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03270748
SponsorGruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo
Last Modified on27 August 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission Myelodysplastic syndrome
Indication for allo-HCT No available HLA identical sibling donor or HLA
matched unrelated donor Activation of an alternative donor search Presence of
a 1 antigen/allele mismatched (7/8 HLA matched) unrelated donor ECOG
performance status <2 Written and signed informed consent

Exclusion Criteria

left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% FEV1, FVC, DLCO <50% of predicted LFT
> 5 times the upper limit of normal creatinine clearance < 40 ml/min Previous
allogeneic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
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