Axi-Cel as a 2nd Line Therapy in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Aggressive B Lymphoma Ineligible to Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

  • End date
    Jun 6, 2025
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    The Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation
Updated on 6 May 2022


This is a phase 2, open-label, multicenter study evaluating axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) as a 2nd line therapy in patients with Relapsed/Refractory aggressive B-NHL who are ineligible to receive Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation but eligible to receive CAR T-cell therapy.


Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy directed against CD19 which has been approved for the treatment of relapse/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma DLBCL and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) after 2 or more lines of systemic therapy.

But administrating CAR T-cells earlier in the therapeutic strategy may be beneficial to patients.

Axi-cel will improve the outcome of patients with DLBCL who are refractory or relapse early (i.e. within 1 year from end of treatment) after first-line therapy and who are not eligible for Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation (ASCT).

Transplant-ineligible patients will include those who are deemed ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) due to age, comorbidity, or prior ASCT.

The primary endpoint will be complete metabolic response (CMR) at 3 months after Axi-cel infusion.

Condition B-Cell Lymphoma Refractory, B-cell Lymphoma Recurrent
Treatment Axicabtagene Ciloleucel
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04531046
SponsorThe Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation
Last Modified on6 May 2022


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Inclusion Criteria

Patient who understands and speaks one of the country official languages and signed Informed Consent Form
Histologically proven relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) of the following histology at relapse: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL), follicular lymphoma Grade 3B per World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 classification and Primary mediastinal Bcell lymphomas. Indolent B-NHL who transformed into aggressive B-NHL and were previously treated with Rituximab-Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunomycin, Oncovin, and Prednisone (R-CHOP) are eligible
Tumoral tissue (at diagnosis or relapse) available for central pathology review, exploratory endpoints and ancillary studies
Positron-emission tomography (PET)-positive disease
Patients must have received adequate first-line therapy including at a minimum: an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab or obinutuzumab), and Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunomycin, Oncovin, and Prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like chemotherapy
Relapsed or refractory disease after first-line chemoimmunotherapy (full dose of R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like regimen), documented by PET-scan
At least 2 weeks must have elapsed since any prior systemic cancer therapy at the time the patient provides consent
Patients must be autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT)-ineligible
Patients must be CAR-T-eligible
Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test (females who have undergone surgical sterilization or who have been postmenopausal for at least 12 months are not considered to be of childbearing potential)

Exclusion Criteria

Patients who received more than one prior line of systemic therapy
Patients who are intolerant to first-line therapy or who received suboptimal first-line therapy, including dose-reduced R-CHOP ("R-miniCHOP"), and those who discontinued prematurely first-line therapy due to toxicity are not eligible
Prior CD19 targeted therapy
Patients with cardiac atrial or cardiac ventricular lymphoma involvement
Requirement for urgent therapy due to tumor mass effects, such as bowel obstruction or blood vessel compression
Patient with clinically significant pleural effusion
History of another primary malignancy that has not been in remission for at least 2 years (except for nonmelanoma skin cancer or carcinoma in situ (eg, cervix, bladder, breast))
Patients with detectable Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma
History or presence of non-malignant CNS disorder, such as seizure disorder requiring anti-convulsive therapy, cerebellar disease, or any autoimmune disease with CNS involvement disease
Active hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection, positive serology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis at the time of screening
Uncontrolled systemic fungal, bacterial, viral or other infection despite appropriate antibiotics or other treatment at the time of leukapheresis or axi-cel administration
History of any one of the following cardiovascular conditions within the past 6 months: Class III or IV heart failure as defined by the New York Heart Association, cardiac angioplasty or stenting, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other clinically significant cardiac disease
History of autoimmune disease requiring systemic immunosuppression and/or systemic disease modifying agents within the last year
History of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, organizing pneumonia, drug-induced pneumonitis, idiopathic pneumonitis, or evidence of active pneumonitis per chest computed tomography (CT) scan at screening
History of severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction to tocilizumab or any of the agents used in this study
History of severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction attributed to aminoglycosides, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine
Treatment with a live, attenuated vaccine within 6 weeks prior to initiation of study treatment or anticipation of need for such a vaccine during the course of the study
Women of childbearing potential who are pregnant or breastfeeding (from the time of consent during treatment and for at least 6 months after conditioning chemotherapy dosing or axicabtagene ciloleucel dosing, whichever is later)
In the investigator's judgment, the patient is unlikely to complete all protocol-required study visits or procedures, including follow-up visits, or comply with the study requirements for participation
Adult person unable to provide informed consent because of intellectual impairment, any serious medical condition, laboratory abnormality or psychiatric illness
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