Alternate Nostril Breathing on Cardiorespiratory Functions in Phase 1 Post CABG Patients

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • participants needed
    22
  • sponsor
    Riphah International University
Updated on 8 March 2021

Summary

The aim of this study is to investigate effects of Anulom vilom pranayama/ Alternate nasal breathing (ANB) on cardio-respiratory parameters including vitals i.e. heart rate, blood pressure, chest expansion, arterial blood gases (ABGs), pulmonary function test and functional capacity in phase 1 post CABG patients. This study will help Cardiopulmonary physiotherapists to incorporate evidence based protocols for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG) in phase 1 of cardiac rehabilitation.

Description

Breathing is essential function of the body. Learning of breath regulation permits to control body's different mechanisms. "Pranayama" means control of breathing. ANB training consist of mindful breathing. Alternate nostril breathing works on regulating respiratory pattern, improvement of ventilation, clearance of lungs from retaining mucus, decrease in work of breathing and relax the mind and body. Alternate-nostril breathing (ANB) is one type of pranayama that contains inhalation from left side nostril and exhalation by right nostril afterwards inhalation by right nostril and exhalation from left nostril. This technique includes inhalation, exhalation and in advance training retention is also include. Its duration can be vary as depends on person's own capacity. ANB is usually considered to release mental conflict and stimulate mental stability and physical health. There are various studies to evaluate the outcomes of alternate breathing technique on definite functions of cognitive and physiological systems. cardiovascular disorder is the foremost reason of passing away for both gender. Coronary Artery Disease(CAD) is narrowing or obstruction of the arteries/vessels (which deliver nutrients and oxygen to the heart) as a result of atherosclerotic plaque or clot formed in the arteries. 50% patient with CAD showed their first symptoms as cardiac arrest. In western world CAD is the most common root for death. In worldwide, with the risk factors of Smoking, High cholesterol, Hypertension, Diabetes, Emotional stress, Obesity and Sedentary life, each year 3.8 million men & 3.4 million women die due to CAD. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting(CABG) is most common surgery performed for CAD. This operation can be one week of daily training of Pranayama revealed to induce improvement in the sympathetic tone. Yoga practice along with different breathing exercises improve cardiac output, reduce hepatic, renal blood flow and increases blood flow in cerebral peripheral vessels. Heart rate vary with every single thought and environmental situation. In Anulom - Vilom pranayama, practitioner not only tries to breathe, but at the same moment, retain his focus on the action of breathing, leading to get awareness. This act of attentiveness distract him from tough concerns and evokes relax response. In this stress free state, parasympathetic nerve action supersedes sympathetic nerve's activity lead to noteworthy reduction in systolic blood pressure. Short term training of Anulom vilom pranayama indicated a substantial impact on Systolic Blood Pressure and showed an encouraging outcome on mental and digestive functions. Studies conducted showed that three months Yoga training is highly beneficial for the improvement of blood pressure and heart rate in stage 1 hypertensive patients. Role for ANB in hypertensive people is beneficial to perform focused tasks without sympathetic activation (based on an increased BP). Practice of ANB in Prehypertensive obese young adults for 15 min daily showed a significant improvement in cardiovascular parameters.

ANB plays a significant role in improving the various ventilatory functions of lungs, vital capacity and PEFR in pranayama practicing subjects. Increase in VC signifies complete emptying and fullness of air. Blood Pressure and Pulse rate is related with Cardio Vascular System, which is controlled by Autonomous nervous System (ANS). Pranayama accompanied by breath control increases cardiac output, decreases hepatic, renal blood flow and increases cerebral peripheral vessels blood flow. Heart rate varies with single thought and thoughtless condition Blood Pressure and Pulse rate is related with Cardio Vascular System, which is controlled by Autonomous nervous System (ANS). Pranayama accompanied by breath control increases cardiac output, decreases hepatic, renal blood flow and increases cerebral peripheral vessels blood flow. Heart rate varies with single thought and thoughtless condition Blood Pressure and Pulse rate is related with Cardio Vascular System, which is controlled by Autonomous nervous System (ANS). ANB accompanied by breath control increases cardiac output, decreases hepatic, renal blood flow and increases cerebral peripheral vessels blood flow. Heart rate varies with single thought and thoughtless condition Blood Pressure and Pulse rate is related with Cardio Vascular System, which is controlled by Autonomous nervous System (ANS). ANB accompanied by breath control increases cardiac output, decreases hepatic, renal blood flow and increases cerebral peripheral vessels blood flow. Heart rate varies with single thought and thoughtless condition Blood Pressure and Pulse rate is related with Cardio Vascular System, which is controlled by Autonomous nervous System (ANS). ANB accompanied by breath control increases cardiac output, decreases hepatic, renal blood flow and increases cerebral peripheral vessels blood flow. Heart rate varies with single thought and thoughtless condition The worth of physiotherapy skills used for patients after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is well recognized. It is a life-saving process which is usually related with substantial postoperative pain. Various lungs functions may become compromised, or visibly vain, because of severe chest pain and there is frequently chances to develop restrictive lung disease after cardiac surgery. Though painkillers may be effective to diminish the pain but they have side effects which include respiratory depression or respiratory muscles weakness. Hence, development of chemical free approaches for effective pain control is a long standing interest. After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), the quality of life (QOL) is main factor to morbidity and mortality. Adding of Yoga Based Lifestyle Program (YLSP) to cardiac rehabilitation has established a valuable and actual improvement in ejection fraction and decreasing in risk factor profiles.

Many studies have been done on the efficacy of this exercise practice in healthy and clinical populations on cardiovascular and the autonomic functions. Numerous investigations have recommended that ANB improves the balance between sympathetic vagal and parasympathetic dominance. Training of ANB after CABG improves chest expansion, peak expiratory flow rate and decrease in pain. ANB along with conventional physiotherapy play a key role in improving Respiratory function and depression issues in CABG patients.

Literature reviewed from different search engines has shown that alternate breathing technique has significant positive effects on cardiorespiratory functions but very little literature has been found specifically on phase 1 post CABG studies, regarding to ANB effect.

Details
Condition post cardiac surgery
Treatment Standardized Physical therapy protocol, Alternate nostrils breathing
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04674865
SponsorRiphah International University
Last Modified on8 March 2021

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