Pomalidomide in Treating Patients With Kaposi Sarcoma and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

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    AIDS Malignancy Consortium
Updated on 4 October 2022


This phase II clinical trial studies the side effects of pomalidomide and how well it works in treating patients with Kaposi sarcoma and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Biological therapies, such as pomalidomide, may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop tumor cells from growing and it may also block the growth of new blood vessels necessary for tumor growth.



I. To determine if pomalidomide monotherapy induces a minimal level of antitumor efficacy to justify its further development for HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in sub-Saharan Africa and is safe and tolerable.


I. To evaluate the effects of pomalidomide monotherapy on standard measures of HIV control, i.e., CD4 counts and HIV viral loads, in this participant population.


I. To assess the effect of pomalidomide treatment on serum cytokine levels. II. To evaluate if changes in serum cytokine levels correlate with clinical response.


Patients receive pomalidomide orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-21. Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 12 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 12 weeks for 48 weeks.

Condition Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Positive, Skin Kaposi Sarcoma
Treatment laboratory biomarker analysis, Pomalidomide
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03601806
SponsorAIDS Malignancy Consortium
Last Modified on4 October 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Participants must have measurable cutaneous KS that has been pathologically confirmed by an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Malignancy Consortium (AMC)-approved pathologist; diagnostic tissue must be available to satisfy the tissue submission requirements for central pathology review
Participants may not show evidence for ongoing improvement in KS lesions in the 4 weeks prior to enrollment
HIV positive. Documentation of HIV-1 infection by means of any one of the following
HIV-1 RNA detection by a licensed HIV-1 RNA assay demonstrating >1000 RNA copies/mL confirmed by a licensed screening antibody and/or HIV antibody antigen combination assay
Any licensed HIV screening antibody and/or HIV antibody/antigen combination assay confirmed by a second licensed HIV assay such as a HIV-1 Western blot confirmation or HIV rapid multispot antibody differentiation assay. NOTE: The term "licensed" refers to a kit that has been certified or licensed by an oversight body within the participating country and validated internally. WHO (World Health Organization) and CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) guidelines mandate that confirmation of the initial test result must use a test that is different from the one used for the initial assessment. A reactive initial rapid test should be confirmed by either another type of rapid assay or an E/CIA that is based on a different antigen preparation and/or different test principle (e.g., indirect versus competitive), or a Western blot or a plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status =< 2 (Karnofsky performance status [KPS] >= 50)
Life expectancy >= 12 weeks
Hemoglobin >= 8 g/dL
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC): >= 1,000 cells/mm^3 (1.0 x 10^9/L)
Platelets: >= 75,000 cells/mm^3 (75.0 x 10^9/L)
Total bilirubin: =< 1.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), unless the participant is receiving an antiretroviral drug known to be associated with increased bilirubin, in which case the direct fraction should be =< 2 times the ULN
Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) / alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) =< 2.5 x ULN
Estimated or measured creatinine clearance > 60 mL/minute (1.00 mL/s) (serum creatinine =< 2.0 mg/dL / 176.8 umol/L)
Currently receiving local standard of care antiretroviral therapy (ART) for >= 12 weeks, with HIV viral load =< 400 copies/mL; participants are required to be on antiretroviral regimens that are in accordance with the current International AIDS Society guidelines concurrently with chemotherapy; the specific agents are at the discretion of the investigator and the use of investigational agents currently available on an expanded access basis is allowed
A female of childbearing potential (FCBP) is a female who has achieved menarche at some point and who meets one of the following criteria: 1) has not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy, or 2) has not been naturally postmenopausal (amenorrhea following cancer therapy does not rule out childbearing potential) for at least 24 consecutive months (i.e., has had menses at any time in the preceding 24 consecutive months), or 3) does not have a serum or plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) > 40 mIU/mL and a history of amenorrhea x >= 1 year
FCBP must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL within 10-14 days prior to and again within 24 hours of starting pomalidomide and must either commit to continued abstinence from heterosexual intercourse or begin TWO acceptable methods of birth control, including one of the following highly effective, long-acting methods, DepoProvera, an intrauterine device (IUD), an implant, or bilateral tubal ligation, if it can be verified that the procedure was performed, and one additional effective method AT THE SAME TIME, at least 28 days before she starts taking pomalidomide; FCBP must also agree to ongoing pregnancy testing
NOTE: Implants containing levonorgestrel and etonogestrel are prohibited in women receiving efavirenz, as drug interactions will render the implants ineffective
Men must agree to use a latex condom during sexual contact with a FCBP even if they have had a vasectomy
All participants must be counseled at a minimum of every 28 days about pregnancy precautions and risks of fetal exposure; serum or urine pregnancy testing will be repeated in FCBP, and must be negative, within 24 hours of starting each new cycle of pomalidomide
Able to take aspirin (>= 81 mg) daily as prophylactic anticoagulation
Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document

Exclusion Criteria

Participants who are receiving any other investigational agents
Any prior use of thalidomide, lenalidomide, or pomalidomide
History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to pomalidomide
Visceral disease requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy (i.e., pulmonary KS, symptomatic gastrointestinal KS). KS-related lymphedema is permitted
Use of agents containing zidovudine (including Combivir and Trizivir) are prohibited; in order to be eligible, participants taking zidovudine must change to a different regimen at least 7 days prior to therapy initiation; changes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) therapy during the study may be made if medically necessary (toxicity, failure of regimen, etc.)
Use of medications or substances that are strong inhibitors of CYP1A2, which include amiodarone, cimetidine, fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, enoxacin), fluvoxamine, and ticlopidine is prohibited
Use of erythropoietin is prohibited
Co-administration of corticosteroids greater than doses required for treatment of adrenal insufficiency is prohibited
Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active
Pregnant women are excluded from this study; breastfeeding should be discontinued if the mother is treated with pomalidomide
infection for which the participant has not completed at least 14 days of
Specific KS therapy, including cytotoxic chemotherapy but not including ART, within the past 4 weeks
therapy prior to study enrollment and/or is not clinically stable; symptomatic
Use of other anticancer treatments or agents within the past 4 weeks
congestive heart failure; unstable angina pectoris; cardiac arrhythmia; or
History of malignant tumors other than KS, unless
psychiatric illness/social situations that, in the opinion of the
investigator, would limit compliance with study requirements
In complete remission for >= 1 year, or
Completely resected basal cell carcinoma, or
In situ squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix or anus
Grade >= 1 peripheral neuropathy
History of myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident, or venous or arterial thromboembolism, unless line-related thrombosis without embolus occurring within 1 year prior to study entry
Known procoagulant disorder including prothrombin gene mutation 20210, antithrombin III deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency and antiphospholipid syndrome but not including heterozygosity for the factor V Leiden mutation or the presence of a lupus anticoagulant in the absence of other criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome
Any condition, including the presence of current laboratory abnormalities or other factor that, in the opinion of the investigator, places the participant at unacceptable risk if they were to participate in the study or confounds the ability to interpret data from the study
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