PErfusioN, OxyGen ConsUmptIon and ENergetics in ADPKD (PENGUIN) (PENGUIN)

  • End date
    Dec 31, 2023
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of Colorado, Denver
Updated on 23 March 2022


Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The disorder is characterized by development and continued growth of multiple cysts requiring renal replacement therapy in 50% of patients by age 60 years. However, ADPKD is also a complex metabolic disorder defined by insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial dysfunction which may be causally related to cyst expansion, kidney function decline and contribute to reduced life expectancy. Renal hypoxia, stemming from a potential metabolic mismatch between increased renal energy expenditure and impaired substrate utilization, is proposed as a novel unifying early pathway in the development and expansion of renal cysts in ADPKD. By examining the interplay between renal O2 consumption and energy utilization in young adults with and without ADPKD, the investigators hope to identify novel therapeutic targets to impede development of cyst expansion in future trials.

The investigators propose to address the specific aims in a cross-sectional study with 20 adults with ADPKD (50% female, ages 18-40 years). Comparative data will be provided from healthy adults from an ongoing study with similar study design and methods (CROCODILE Study: Control of Renal Oxygen Consumption, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Insulin Resistance). For this protocol, participants will complete a one day study visit at Children's Hospital Colorado. Patients will undergo a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess body composition, and a 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET/CT) scan to quantify renal O2 consumption. After the PET/CT, participants will undergo a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp while fasting to quantify insulin sensitivity. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and Effective Renal Plasma Flow (ERPF) will be measured by iohexol and PAH clearances during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.

Condition Polycystic Kidney Disease, Adult, Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant
Treatment PET/CT scan, Aminohippurate Sodium Inj 20%, Iohexol Inj 300 milligrams per milliliter (MG/ML)
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04407481
SponsorUniversity of Colorado, Denver
Last Modified on23 March 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patients with Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Age 18-40 years
BMI >= 18.5 and <30 kg/m2
Weight <350 lbs

Exclusion Criteria

Diabetes mellitus, based on previous diagnosis
Albuminuria (≥30mg/g) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <75ml/min/1.73m2
Pregnancy or nursing
Allergy to shellfish or iodine
Vaptan therapy (e.g. tolvaptan)
Uncontrolled hypertension (average ≥140/90 mmHg)
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a study center
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer  to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact


Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note