University of Iowa Interventional Psychiatry Service Patient Registry

  • End date
    Aug 6, 2050
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Mark Niciu
Updated on 6 May 2022
bipolar disorder
depressive disorder
depressed mood
depressive episode
transcranial magnetic stimulation
electroconvulsive therapy
major depressive disorder, single episode


The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of interventional/procedural therapies for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). These treatments include electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), racemic ketamine infusion and intranasal esketamine insufflation. The investigators will obtain various indicators, or biomarkers, of a depressed individuals' state before, during, and/or after these treatments. Such biomarkers include neurobehavioral testing, neuroimaging, electroencephalography, cognitive testing, vocal recordings, epi/genetic testing, and autonomic nervous system measures (i.e. "fight-or-flight" response). The results obtained from this study may provide novel antidepressant treatment response biomarkers, with the future goal of targeting a given treatment to an individual patient ("personalized medicine").


Treatment response biomarkers in TRD and OCD have been and will remain an active area of research. Interventional treatments in psychiatry, e.g. ECT, TMS, racemic ketamine infusions and intranasal esketamine insufflations, offer exciting opportunities for biomarker discovery due their procedural nature (obviating concerns for treatment non-adherence in non-supervised settings), more rapid-onset, and larger effect sizes than typically seen with traditional antidepressant medications or evidence-based psychotherapies. Although no well-replicated TRD biomarkers have been approved for standard clinical use, several potential biomarkers have been investigated across multiple modalities, i.e. neuroimaging(1,2), autonomic function(3,4), genetics(5-7), electroencephalography (EEG) (8,9), and computational analysis of behavior or speech(10). These studies have promising early results but often insufficient predictive power at the subject-level. The investigators anticipate that combinatorial, multimodal biomarkers will enhance predictive power and, as a result, improve treatment personalization in major depression.

The University of Iowa Interventional Psychiatry Service Patient Registry systematically collects data from TRD and OCD patients undergoing procedural treatment(s) for major depression. First, the investigators seek to replicate and/or extend discoveries from prior investigations, e.g. TMS-induced autonomic changes as positive predictors of antidepressant efficacy. The investigators will also compare and contrast differences, not only in response to a given therapy, but also how individual subjects respond across different treatment modalities, e.g. how does functional connectivity in the brain change in response to an effective course of TMS as opposed to ECT? Such findings could inform the future development of clinical guidelines; this is especially critical as some of these treatment modalities have only recently been approved for TRD by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, e.g. intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) and intranasal esketamine insufflation and dTMS for OCD.

Next, a longitudinal database may also be valuable for future biomarker discovery and/or replication in independent samples, i.e. an epigenetic signature of antidepressant treatment response to an interventional modality identified by another research group. Similarly, this patient registry could be valuable for collaborative research with other institutions administering interventional treatments in psychiatry.

Condition Treatment Resistant Depression, Major Depressive Episode, Major Depression, Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Bipolar Depression, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Treatment Ketamine, Esketamine, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS)
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04480918
SponsorMark Niciu
Last Modified on6 May 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

18-99 years of age
English-speaker with a level of understanding sufficient to agree to clinical treatment with a treatment modality offered by the Interventional Psychiatry Service, all required research procedures, and sign an informed consent document
Clinical diagnosis of a major depressive episode in the context of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder or treatment-resistant OCD evaluated by a provider on the Interventional Psychiatry Service and felt to be an appropriate candidate for clinical treatment with a treatment modality offered by the Interventional Psychiatry Service

Exclusion Criteria

Age less than 18 years
A primary neuropsychiatric diagnosis that is not either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder
Serious, unstable medical conditions/problems including hepatic, renal, gastroenterologic, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, immunologic, or hematologic disease, e.g. uncontrolled asthma, uncontrolled hyper/hypothyroidism or active cancer
Involuntary commitment to psychiatry inpatient units
If patients have one or more of the following MRI Exclusion criteria, they will not be able to participate in those aspects of this study
The presence of an implanted device including pacemaker, coronary stent, defibrillator, or neurostimulation device that is not MRI-compatible
The presence of ferromagnetic objects in the body, i.e. bullets, shrapnel, and/or metal slivers
Clinically-significant claustrophobia
Clinically-significant hearing loss
Pregnant or nursing women or women of child bearing potential not using at least one medically accepted means of contraception (to include oral, injectable, or implant birth control, condom or diaphragm with spermicide, intrauterine devices (IUD), tubal ligation, abstinence, or partner with vasectomy)
The presence of any medical illness likely to alter brain morphology and/or physiology (e.g., hypertension, diabetes) even if controlled by medications
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