A Clinical Trial to Study the Effectiveness of a Care Bundle to Prevent Bleeding After a Woman Has Given Birth

  • days left to enroll
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of Birmingham
Updated on 25 January 2021


Every six minutes a mother dies from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in low-resource countries, in the prime of her life and often leaving behind a young family. In many settings, when a mother dies in childbirth, her infant has less than a 20% chance of surviving past the first month. PPH, defined as a blood loss of more than 500 ml, is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide, accounting for 27% of maternal deaths. The WHO published "Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Postpartum Hemorrhage" in 2012 to provide evidence-informed recommendations for managing PPH. However, adherence to these recommendations is currently limited by a number of challenges.

This primary aim of this multi-country, parallel cluster randomised trial with a baseline control phase, along with mixed-methods and health economic evaluations, is to evaluate the implementation of early detection and the use of the World Health Organisation (WHO) MOTIVE 'first response' treatment bundle for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) on clinical, implementation and resource use outcomes. The investigators will evaluate the implementation through mixed-methods and carry out a health economic evaluation from the public healthcare system perspective.


The aim of this trial is evaluate the implementation of early detection and the use of the WHO MOTIVE 'first response' treatment bundle for PPH on clinical, implementation and resource use outcomes. The investigators will evaluate the implementation through mixed-methods and carry out a health economic evaluation from the public healthcare system perspective. The investigators will use a multi-country, parallel cluster randomised trial design with a baseline control phase, along with mixed-methods and health economic evaluations. The trial is conducted in secondary level health facilities in five low- and middle- income countries. For this trial, the health facility is the randomisation unit. Health facilities are eligible for inclusion if they have 1000 to 5000 births a year and provide comprehensive obstetric care with ability to perform surgery for PPH. Pre-existing implementation of early detection or bundled approach are exclusion criteria. The research participants are all healthcare providers attending vaginal births in the study facilities. The E-MOTIVE intervention consists of three elements: 1) a strategy for early detection of PPH, which allows triggering of the 'first response' treatment bundle; 2) a 'first response' bundle called "MOTIVE", based on the WHO guideline recommendations and consisting of uterine Massage, Oxytocic drugs, Tranexamic acid, IV fluids and Examination & Escalation; and 3) an implementation strategy, focusing on simulation-based training, peer-assisted learning, local E-MOTIVE champions, feedback of actionable data to providers, calibrated drape with action line, and MOTIVE emergency kits. The control health facilities will deliver usual care with dissemination of the current guidelines.

The primary outcome is a composite of the following three clinical outcomes: severe PPH defined as blood loss 1000 ml or postpartum laparotomy for bleeding or postpartum maternal death from bleeding. The two Key Secondary outcomes are postpartum haemorrhage detection rate (defined as recording of diagnosis of PPH by birth attendant) and compliance with the MOTIVE bundle. Secondary: blood transfusion, uterine tamponade, Intensive Care Unit admissions or higher-level facility transfers, and new-born deaths along with implementation and resource use outcomes.

Eighty health facilities will take part in the study. Initially, all health facilities will enter an 11-month baseline period in which they will be following usual care. After this, the investigators will randomise 40 of the 80 health facilities (1:1 ratio) to the E-MOTIVE intervention for 11 months, allowing two months for transition. The other 40 health facilities will continue to follow usual care as per the baseline period for the entire trial duration (2 years). To allow us to perform the randomisation sequentially, if necessary, a minimisation algorithm will ensure a balance of the intervention and control facilities. The total sample size for the study will be 337,920 women. This sample size is expected to have over 90% power to detect a 25% relative reduction in the primary outcome from 2% to 1.5% after allowing for clustering. The number of clusters has been inflated by 10% to allow for drop out of health facilities and for varying cluster sizes. Randomisation will use a minimisation algorithm to balance health facilities by the number of vaginal births per health facility, country and the health facility rate of the composite primary outcome during the baseline phase.

During the 11-month baseline phase, the investigators will conduct mixed method work to refine and optimise the E-MOTIVE implementation strategy by piloting it in three to four facilities per country over up to two adaptive cycles for addressing barriers and enablers to delivery and implementation, ahead of the intervention phase. The investigators will conduct a mixed-methods process evaluation to assess the extent to which the E-MOTIVE intervention has been implemented as intended. The implementation outcomes of interest are fidelity, adoption, adaptation, acceptability, and sustainability, as well as contextual influences and barriers and enablers to implementation. The investigators will also assess the cost-effectiveness of the E-MOTIVE intervention compared with usual care from a public healthcare system perspective for each country, as measured by incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for a) severe PPH prevented, b) laparotomy for PPH prevented, c) death from PPH avoided, and (d) quality-adjusted life-years prevented.

Condition Postpartum Hemorrhage
Treatment Usual Care, E-MOTIVE intervention
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04341662
SponsorUniversity of Birmingham
Last Modified on25 January 2021


How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a study center
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer  to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact


Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note