Impact of Totally Transdermal Sedation in the Weaning From Remifentanil Infusion Among Critically Ill Patients Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation: a Pilot Randomized-controlled Study (The TOES Trial) (TOES)

  • days left to enroll
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS
Updated on 16 October 2022
mechanical ventilation
arterial blood gases
pressure support
assisted ventilation
endotracheal extubation


The choice of the sedation protocol has a massive impact on the duration of mechanical ventilation and the timing of extubation. Many sedation protocols are described in the literature. The investigators aim to assess if a transdermal fentanyl-based sedation protocol can have an impact on the global Work of Breathing (WOB)


The choice of the sedation protocol has a massive impact on the duration of mechanical ventilation and the timing of extubation. Many sedation protocols are described in the literature. No data are available about the possibility of using transdermal fentanyl as an alternative to intravenous opioids during the weaning phase from mechanical ventilation and the post-extubation period until the discharge from ICU to the ward. The investigators aim to assess if a transdermal fentanyl-based sedation protocol can have an impact on the global Work of Breathing (WOB). Secondary endpoints of the study are the duration of mechanical ventilation, the duration of continuous infusion of opioids, the length of stay in ICU and in hospital. Eligible patients will be randomized in 2 groups: Group 1 will receive remifentanil; Group 2 will receive transdermal fentanyl and remifentanil. An Edi Catheter for diaphragm electrical activity monitoring will be put in place for each patient.

Statistical Analysis: Distribution normality will be assessed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Continuous variables will be reported expressed as medians (interquartile ranges). Qualitative variables will be reported as frequencies. Analysis on the primary efficacy criterion and other quantitative variables will be assessed with the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Categorical outcomes will be compared with the chi-square test, or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics will be reported for all these results. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with Bonferroni correction will be used to determine the differences in secondary endpoints. Comparisons between groups regarding these variables at each study time point were performed with the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test, as appropriate. Mean difference and 95% confidence interval [Confidence Interval 95%] are reported for most significant results. Two-tail p values≤0.05 Will be considered significant.

Condition Respiratory Insufficiency, Ventilator Weaning, Analgesics, Opioid
Treatment Remifentanil, Fentanyl Transdermal System
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04204967
SponsorFondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS
Last Modified on16 October 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Age > 18 yo
Negative pregnancy test prior to inclusion in the study
The informed consent form needs to be signed and dated by the patient or a relative/legal guardian before of any procedure related to the study; if the patient is initially unable to sign the informed consent form, but later regains the ability to sign it, a new informed consent form will be given to the patient and must be signed and dated
Mechanically ventilated in Pressure Support Ventilation, according to the decision to the attending physician
A patient with prolonged weaning from the mechanical ventilator will be considered eligible. Prolonged weaning is defined as weaning that is still not terminated 7 days after the first separation attempt from the ventilator (by success or death)
Analgesia provided by continuous infusion of remifentanil lasting five days or more and an intolerance to a dose reduction of 0.025 mcg/kg/min defined as the presence of at least one of the following criteria: RASS ≥ 2, a respiratory rate ≥ 35 breaths/minute, a PaCO2 < 30 mmHg, a heart rate > 120 bpm, a systolic blood pressure value > 160 mmHg or an increase of Visual Analogue Scale for pain assessment of ≥ 2 points

Exclusion Criteria

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or any of the excipients
Hepatic or renal impairment
Fever (body temperature ≥ 38 °C) or septic shock, hypothermia (body temperature < 35 °C) or presence of active surface cooling systems
Hypercapnic patients with a PaCO2 > 45 mmHg
Current enrollment or plan to enroll in any interventional clinical study in which an investigational treatment or approved therapy for investigational use is administered within 30 days or 5 half-lives of the agent, prior to the baseline visit
Hypoxemic respiratory failure (P/F < 200 mmHg)
Delirium state defined as RASS ≥ 3 and CAM-ICU positive
Hemodynamic instability requiring high doses of inotropes or vasopressors
Any condition that may contraindicate the use of remifentanil or transdermal fentanyl
Patients with a BMI ≥ 35
Patient admitted for postoperative monitoring after elective surgery
EAdi catheter contraindicated
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a study center
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer  to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact


Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Browse trials for

Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note