PipEracillin Tazobactam Versus mERoPENem for Treatment of Bloodstream Infections Caused by Cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (PETERPEN) (PETERPEN)

  • End date
    Apr 11, 2024
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Rambam Health Care Campus
Updated on 11 August 2022
blood culture
beta-lactamase inhibitor


Data regarding optimal treatment for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae blood-stream infection are lacking. Observational studies show conflicting results when comparing treatment with combination beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor and carbapenems. The investigators aim to evaluate the effect of definitive treatment with meropenem vs. piperacillin-tazobactam on the outcome of patients with bacteremia due to cephalosporin-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. The investigators hypothesize that piperacillin-tazobactam is non-inferior to meropenem.

Condition Beta Lactam Resistant Bacterial Infection, Enterobacteriaceae Infections, Bacteremia
Treatment Meropenem, Piperacillin/Tazobactam
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03671967
SponsorRambam Health Care Campus
Last Modified on11 August 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Adults (age ≥ 18 years)
New onset BSI due to E. coli or Klebsiella spp. in one or more blood cultures associated with evidence of infection
The microorganism will have to be non-susceptible to third generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) and susceptible to both PTZ and meropenem (see microbiological methods)
Both community and hospital-acquired bacteremias will be included
We will permit the inclusion of bacteremias due to E. coli or Klebsiella spp. with concomitant growth in blood of skin commensals considered as contaminants

Exclusion Criteria

More than 72 hr. elapsed since initial blood culture taken, regardless of the time covering antibiotics were started (up to 72 hrs.)
Polymicrobial bacteremia. Polymicrobial bacteremia will be defined as either growth of two or more different species of microorganisms in the same blood culture, or growth of different species in two or more separate blood cultures within the same episode
Patients with prior bacteremia or infection that have not completed antimicrobial therapy for the previous infectious episode
Patients with septic shock at the time of enrollment and randomization, defined as at least 2 measurements of systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg and/or use of vasopressors (dopamine>15μg/kg/min, adrenalin>0.1μg/kg/min, noradrenalin>0.1μg/kg/min, vasopressin any dose) in the 12 hours prior to randomization. In the absence of the use of vasopressors, a systolic blood pressure <90 would need to represent a deviation for the patient's known normal blood pressure
BSI due to specific infections known at the time of randomization
Endocarditis / endovascular infections
Osteomyelitis (not resected)
Central nervous system infections
Allergy to any of the study drugs confirmed by history taken by the investigator
Previous enrollment in this trial
Concurrent participation in another interventional clinical trial
Imminent death (researcher's assessment of expected death within 48 hrs. of recruitment)
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