Immunotherapy (Nivolumab and Ipilimumab) Before and After Surgery for the Treatment of Recurrent or Progressive High Grade Glioma in Children and Young Adults

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Mar 1, 2025
  • participants needed
    45
  • sponsor
    Sabine Mueller, MD, PhD
Updated on 3 July 2021
platelet count
cancer
monoclonal antibodies
nitrosoureas
cytokines
interferon
growth factor
MRI
gilbert's syndrome
hematopoietic growth factors
cytotoxic chemotherapy
neutrophil count
tumor cells
nivolumab
ipilimumab
malignant glioma
tumor progression
interleukins
antineoplastic

Summary

This phase I trial studies the side effects of nivolumab and ipilimumab before and after surgery in treating children and young adults with high grade glioma that has come back (recurrent) or is increasing in scope or severity (progressive). Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab and ipilimumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread.

Description

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To measure the relative changes in cell cycle-related genetic signature of the tumor microenvironment post administration of neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, ipilimumab and placebo, and nivolumab and ipilimumab in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive high grade glioma (HGG) when compared to a cohort of archived non-treated recurrent pediatric HGG samples.

II. To characterize the safety and tolerability of neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, neoadjuvant ipilimumab and placebo, and neoadjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab followed by adjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To determine the 6 month and 12 month overall survival (OS) in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG treated with neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, ipilimumab and placebo, or nivolumab and ipilimumab followed by adjuvant nivolumab and ipilimumab.

II. To determine the 6 month and 12 month progression-free survival (PFS) in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG treated with neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, ipilimumab and placebo, or nivolumab and ipilimumab followed by adjuvant nivolumab and ipilimumab.

EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVES:

I. To measure relative changes in interferon gamma associated genetic signature within the tumor microenvironment post administration of neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, ipilimumab and placebo, or nivolumab and ipilimumab in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG compared to archived non-treated recurrent pediatric HGG samples.

II. To explore the correlation of interferon-gamma-associated genetic signature, cell cycle-related genetic signature and infiltrating T lymphocyte (TIL) density and clonality with clinical responses for each treatment arm.

III. To measure TIL density post administration of neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo compared to neo-adjuvant ipilimumab and placebo, and neoadjuvant nivolumab and ipilimumab in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG.

IV. To estimate the objective response rate (ORR) in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG treated with neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, neoadjuvant ipilimumab and placebo, or neoadjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab followed by adjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab.

V. To evaluate the association between advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI, pre-contrast T1 shortening on T1-weighed images, and/or magnetization transfer ratio with asymmetric analysis (MTRasym) on pH-weighted amine chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)-echo planar imaging (EPI)) and tumor and peripheral blood immune responses.

VI. To measure relative change in peripheral T-cell response and post administration of neo-adjuvant nivolumab and placebo, ipilimumab and placebo, or nivolumab and ipilimumab in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG.

VII. To measure PD-1 and PDL-1 expression by immunohistochemistry for children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG post neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, neoadjuvant ipilimumab and placebo, or neoadjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab, and evaluate the differences between the three arms as well as between each group and archived non-treated recurrent pediatric HGG samples.

VIII. To explore the correlation of tumor mutational load with clinical response for children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG treated with neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, neoadjuvant ipilimumab and placebo, or neoadjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab followed by adjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab.

IX. To assess quality of life (QOL) and cognitive measures in children and young adults with recurrent or progressive HGG treated with neoadjuvant nivolumab and placebo, neoadjuvant ipilimumab and placebo, or neoadjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab followed by adjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab.

OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 3 groups.

GROUP A:

NEOADJUVANT: Patients receive nivolumab intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes and placebo IV over 30 minutes 14 days before undergoing standard of care surgical resection.

ADJUVANT COMBINATION INFUSION: After recovery from surgery (no more than 35 days afterwards), patients receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes and ipilimumab IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 3 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ADJUVANT MAINTENANCE: After completion of combination infusion, patients receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 15. Cycles repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

GROUP B:

NEOADJUVANT: Patients receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes and ipilimumab IV over 30 minutes 14 days before undergoing standard of care surgical resection.

ADJUVANT COMBINATION INFUSION: After recovery from surgery (no more than 35 days afterwards), patients receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes and ipilimumab IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 3 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ADJUVANT MAINTENANCE: After completion of combination infusion, patients receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 15. Cycles repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

GROUP C:

NEOADJUVANT: Patients receive placebo IV over 30 minutes and ipilimumab IV over 30 minutes 14 days before undergoing standard of care surgical resection.

ADJUVANT COMBINATION INFUSION: After recovery from surgery (no more than 35 days afterwards), patients receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes and ipilimumab IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 3 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ADJUVANT MAINTENANCE: After completion of combination infusion, patients receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 15. Cycles repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 30 days and then every 2 months for up to 5 years.

Details
Condition Glioma, Glioblastoma Multiforme, Recurrent Malignant Glioma, High Grade Glioma, Recurrent Glioblastoma, Gliomas, Grade III Glioma, Recurrent Grade III Glioma, malignant glioma, glioblastoma
Treatment questionnaire administration, quality-of-life assessment, Ipilimumab, Nivolumab, Placebo Administration
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04323046
SponsorSabine Mueller, MD, PhD
Last Modified on3 July 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Participants with recurrent or progressive high-grade gliomas (HGG) (World Health Organization (WHO) grade III or grade IV) who are candidates for surgical tumor debulking will be enrolled in this trial
All assessments are to occur within 14 days of registration except where otherwise noted. The participant and their legal parent/guardian must be thoroughly informed about all aspects of the study, including the study visit schedule and required evaluations and all regulatory requirements for informed consent. The written informed consent must be obtained from the participant and legal parent/guardian prior to enrollment
Have a history of previously treated histologically confirmed World Health Organization grade III or IV HGG. Previous first line therapy with radiation and/or chemotherapy
Have evidence of recurrence or progression of disease by MRI scan
Participants must be adequate medical candidates for surgical resection. The intent of surgical resection is to allow both cytoreduction and tumor debulking as part of standard of care, and also collect a minimum of 100 mg of tumor tissue for the study tissue endpoints
A primary goal of surgery must be cytoreduction, and not solely on diagnostic biopsy
Age: Participants must be > 6 months and < 22 years of age at time of enrollment
Karnofsky >= 50 for participants > 16 years of age and Lansky >= 50 for participants =< 16 years of age. Participants who are unable to walk because of paralysis, but who are up in a wheelchair, will be considered ambulatory for the purpose of assessing the performance score
Prior Therapy: Participants must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior anti-cancer therapy and must meet the following minimum duration from prior anti-cancer directed therapy prior to enrollment. If after the required timeframe, the defined eligibility criteria are met, e.g. blood count criteria, the patient is considered to have recovered adequately
Cytotoxic chemotherapy or other anti-cancer agents known to be myelosuppressive. At least 21 days after the last dose of cytotoxic or myelosuppressive chemotherapy (42 days if prior nitrosourea)
An interval of at least 12 weeks from the completion of radiation therapy to registration unless there is unequivocal histologic confirmation of tumor progression
Hematopoietic growth factors: At least 14 days after the last dose of a long-acting growth factor (e.g. pegfilgrastim) or 7 days for short acting growth factor. For agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to occur. The duration of this interval must be discussed with the study chair
Anti-cancer agents not known to be myelosuppressive (e.g. not associated with reduced platelet or absolute neutrophil count [ANC] counts): At least 7 days after the last dose of agent
Interleukins, interferons and cytokines (other than hematopoietic growth factors): >= 21 days after the completion of interleukins, interferon or cytokines (other than hematopoietic growth factors)
Antibodies: >= 21 days must have elapsed from infusion of last dose of antibody, and toxicity related to prior antibody therapy must be recovered to grade =< 1
Participants must not have received prior exposure to PD-1, PD-L1 or CTLA4 inhibitors
Stem cell infusion (with or without total-body irradiation (TBI))
Autologous stem cell infusion including boost infusion: >= 42 days
Participants must be willing to forego cytotoxic anti-tumor therapies except study-defined therapy while being treated on study
Organ Function Requirements
Peripheral absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1000/mm^3
Platelet count >= 100,000/mm^3
Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >= 70 mL/min/1.73 m^2 OR a serum creatinine based on age/gender as follows
Age: Maximum Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)
months to < 3 years: 0.6 (male and female)
to < 6 years: 0.8 (male and female)
to < 10 years: 1 (male and female)
to < 13 years: 1.2 (male and female)
to < 16 years: 1.5 (male), 1.4 (female)
>= 16 years: 1.7 (male), 1.4 (female)
Bilirubin (sum of conjugated and unconjugated) =< 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age (except participants with Gilbert syndrome who must have a total bilirubin level of < 3.0
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 3.0 x ULN
Serum albumin >= 2
Pregnancy: The effects of nivolumab and ipilimumab on the developing human fetus are unknown. For this reason women of child-bearing potential must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry, for the duration of study participation and 5 months after completion of therapy. Should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while she or her partner is participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately
MRI within 28 days prior to registration

Exclusion Criteria

Current or planned participation in a study of an investigational agent or using an investigational device
Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency
Has tumor primarily localized to the brainstem or spinal cord
Has presence of diffuse leptomeningeal disease or extracranial disease
Has received systemic immunosuppressive treatments (such as methotrexate, chloroquine, azathioprine, etc.), aside from anti-neoplastic chemotherapy or systemic corticosteroids within six months of registration
Participants with a concurrent condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (> 0.25 mg/kg daily prednisone equivalent) or other immunosuppressive medications within 14 days of start of study treatment. Inhaled or topical steroids, and adrenal replacement steroid doses > 0.25 mg/kg daily prednisone equivalent, are permitted in the absence of active autoimmune disease
Unable to taper steroids due to ongoing mass effect; a maximum dexamethasone dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day is allowed, but preferably have been discontinued (inhaled or topical use of steroids is allowed)
Has a known history of active TB (Bacillus tuberculosis)
Has a known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment within 3 years of registration. Exceptions include basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or in situ cervical cancer that has undergone potentially curative therapy
Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs). Replacement therapy (e.g. thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a form of systemic treatment
Has known history of, or any evidence of active non-infectious pneumonitis
Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy
Has a known hypersensitivity to any of the study therapy products
Has a known history of positive test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or known acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
NOTE: Testing for HIV must be performed at sites where mandated locally
Any prior positive test result for hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus indicating presence of virus, e.g., hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, Australia antigen) positive, or hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) positive (except if HCV-ribonucleic acid (RNA) negative)
Participants who have had prior allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)
Any serious or uncontrolled medical disorder that, in the opinion of the investigator may increase the risk associated with study participation or study drug administration, impair the ability of the participant to receive protocol therapy or interfere with interpretation of study results
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