SPI-guided Analgesia During FESS for Intraoperative Blood Loss (FESSSPI)

  • End date
    Jul 15, 2023
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Medical University of Silesia
Updated on 24 March 2022


The aim of this randomized trial is to assess the utility of Surgical Pleth Index (SPI) for monitoring pain perception intraoperatively and its influence on intraoperative blood loss, quality of surgical field using Boezaart Bleeding Scale (BBS) in patients undergoing functional sinus surgery (FESS) under total intravenous anaesthesia using propofol or volatile anaesthesia using sevoflurane or desflurane


Intraoperative blood loss during FESS constitutes a major problem for a surgeon because it influences quality of surgical field. Each incident of haemorrhage makes the operator stop the procedure in order to bring back the optimal visualization of the intranasal anatomy. In the end it prolongs the time of procedure.

Currently, intraoperative blood loss is estimated based on Boezaart Bleeding Scale (BBS) (0 - no bleeding (cadaveric conditions), 1 - Slight bleeding, no suctioning required, 2 - Slight bleeding, occasional suctioning required, 3 - Slight bleeding, frequent suctioning required; bleeding threatens surgical field a few seconds after suction is removed, 4 - Moderate bleeding, frequent suctioning required, and bleeding threatens surgical field directly after suction is removed, 5 - Severe bleeding, constant suctioning required; bleeding appears faster than can be removed by suction; surgical field severely threatened and surgery usually not possible).

Recently, the Surgical Pleth Index (SPI) was added as a surrogate variable showing the nociception-antinociception balance into above mentioned parameters constituting a novel approach in monitoring patients intraoperatively, known as adequacy of anaesthesia (AoA) or tailor-made anaesthesia. SPI>10 or any SPI>50, were proposed to constitute the indication for administration of rescue analgesia intraoperatively.

This study aims at evaluating utility of SPI-guided analgesia using remifentanil on the intraoperative blood loss, haemodynamic stability and time duration of surgery in patients undergoing functional sinus surgery (FESS) under total intravenous anaesthesia using propofol or volatile anaesthesia using sevoflurane or desflurane.

Currently, FESS is most often performed using total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) which is by majority of anaesthesiologists believed to reduce the intraoperative blood loss compared to general anaesthesia using volatile anaesthetics, but current literature provides conflicting findings in this area if the sort of anaesthetic used influences quality of the surgical field.

Condition Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
Treatment Remifentanil, Surgical Pleth Index
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03417180
SponsorMedical University of Silesia
Last Modified on24 March 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

written consent to participate in the study
written consent to undergo functional endoscopic sinus surgery under general anaesthesia
ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I-III

Exclusion Criteria

age under 18 years old
allergy to propofol
any anatomical malformation making SE measurement impossible
necessity of administration of vasoactive drugs
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