Infliximab and Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Treating Patients With Steroid-Refractory Pneumonitis

  • End date
    May 14, 2024
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group
Updated on 18 November 2021
hematologic malignancy
monoclonal antibodies
solid tumor
antibody therapy
intravenous immunoglobulin


This phase II trial studies how well infliximab and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy work in treating patients with pneumonitis that does not respond to steroid treatment. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies such as, infliximab, may induce changes in body's immune system and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may improve pneumonitis. It is not yet known whether giving infliximab and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy will work better in treating patients with pneumonitis.



I. To assess pneumonitis response to additional immunosuppression (infliximab or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy [IVIG]) in patients with steroid-refractory pneumonitis at 28-days.


I. To assess functional parameters of steroid-refractory pneumonitis at day 1, 14-days and 28-days after day 1 of receipt of additional immunosuppression (infliximab or IVIG).

II. To assess radiologic parameters of steroid-refractory pneumonitis at day 1, 14-days and 28-days after day 1 of receipt of additional immunosuppression (infliximab or IVIG).

III. To assess patient-reported outcomes of steroid-refractory pneumonitis at day 1, 14-days and 28-days after day 1 of receipt of additional immunosuppression (infliximab or IVIG).

IV. To assess death after additional immunosuppression. V. To assess the rate of infections in the 28-day period after additional immunosuppression.


I. To examine lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serial blood samples in patients who develop steroid-refractory pneumonitis.

II. To examine associations between BAL phenotypes and pneumonitis response, functional and radiologic parameters of pneumonitis.

III. To evaluate associations between pneumonitis and autoantibodies, T-cell expansion, and baseline cytokines in the blood.

OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms.

ARM A: Patients receive infliximab intravenously (IV) on day 1 followed by prednisone taper IV or orally (PO) for 4-6 weeks in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients may receive an additional dose of infliximab IV on day 14 at the discretion of the treating physician.

ARM B: Patients receive intravenous immunoglobulin therapy IV over 2-5 days per institutional guidelines followed by prednisone taper IV or PO for 4-6 weeks in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 28, 42 and 56 days.

Condition Hematologic Malignancy, Hematologic Cancer, hematopoietic malignancy, Malignant Solid Neoplasm, hematopoietic and lymphoid cell neoplasm, Blood Cancer, Hematologic Neoplasms, Steroid-Refractory Pneumonitis, Malignant Solid Tumor
Treatment questionnaire administration, quality-of-life assessment, prednisone, Infliximab, Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04438382
SponsorECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group
Last Modified on18 November 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patients must be English-speaking and be able to provide informed consent
Patient must be willing and able to undergo arterial blood gas assessment as per the treating investigator. Patient must not have contraindication for arterial blood gas assessment
Women must not be pregnant or breast-feeding due to the potential risk to the fetus of infliximab or IVIG. All females of childbearing potential must have a blood test or urine test within 14 days prior to randomization to rule out pregnancy. A female of childbearing potential is any woman, regardless of sexual orientation or whether they have undergone tubal ligation, who meets the following criteria: 1) has achieved menarche at some point, 2) has not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy; or 3) has not been naturally postmenopausal for at least 24 consecutive months (i.e., has had menses at any time in the preceding 24 consecutive months)
Women of childbearing potential and sexually active males must be strongly advised to use an accepted and effective method(s) of contraception or to abstain from sexual intercourse for a minimum of 56 days (the duration of their participation in the study)
Patient must have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-3
Patient may have received any number of lines of prior systemic therapy
Patient may have any solid tumor or hematologic malignancy is eligible
Patient must have received treatment with an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agent either alone or in combination with another anti-cancer agent, as their most recent therapy prior to development of pneumonitis
Patient must have steroid-refractory pneumonitis defined as
Grade 2 pneumonitis that has not clinically improved by a Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade in greater than 72 hours or maximum of 14 days or
Grade 3 or higher pneumonitis that has not clinically improved by a CTCAE grade in greater than 48 hours or maximum of 14 days with high dose corticosteroids (methylprednisolone or prednisone 1-4 mg/kg/equivalent) as their most recent treatment for pneumonitis, as determined by the treating investigator
Patient may have received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy as standard-of-care or part of a clinical trial
Patient must have had pathogen-negative infectious diagnostic evaluation within 14 days prior to randomization, and at a minimum these should include: blood culture, urine culture, sputum culture, and viral panel: rapid flu, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes simplex virus (HSV). Empiric antibiotics for culture negative infections are not an exclusion for study entry
Patient must have had a pathogen-negative bronchoscopic assessment of BAL fluid within 14 days prior to randomization. A minimum assessment for pathogens on BAL must include: gram stain, fungal panel, viral panel
Patient must have a negative tuberculosis assessment (TB spot test, quantiferon gold or tuberculin skin test) within 14 days prior to randomization
Patient must have chest computed tomography (CT) scan without contrast performed =< 14 days before randomization. Patient must not have a contraindication for CT

Exclusion Criteria

Patient must not have clinical evidence of cardiac dysfunction (as determined by the treating investigator) as an alternative diagnosis to steroid-refractory pneumonitis
Patient must not be receiving anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 agent in combination with any of the following anti-cancer agents: docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, gefitinib, erlotinib, osimertinib, crizotinib, bleomycin, afatinib
Patient must not be receiving concurrent radiation therapy to the chest
Patient must not be deemed to have radiation pneumonitis. Patients with a history of stable radiation pneumonitis not requiring corticosteroid therapy within the last 3 months prior to randomization will be allowed on study
Patient must not have pre-existing interstitial lung disease or pneumonitis requiring corticosteroid therapy from any other cause, as determined by the treating investigator
Patient must not have an absolute contraindication to IVIG or infliximab, including: clinical history of severe hypersensitivity reaction, selective IgA deficiency, active hepatitis B, active tuberculosis, active human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) where a study subject has a CD4 count of =< 200 at screening, or drug interaction
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