Last updated on August 2020

A Treatment Study Protocol for Participants 1-45 Years With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Brief description of study

ALLTogether collects the experience of previously successful treatment of children and young adults, with ALL from a number of well-renowned study groups into a new master protocol, which is both a comprehensive system for stratification and treatment of ALL in this age-group as well as the basis for several randomised and interventional trials included in the study-design.

Detailed Study Description

ALLTogether is a European clinical treatment study for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children and young adults. The aims are to improve survival and quality of survival for children and young adults with ALL. In young people, ALL has excellent outcome with an overall survival of about 92% in children and 75% in young adults. However, patients still die of disease - from relapse because of under-treatment and a large fraction of patients are also over-treated: All patients risk treatment-related death and some suffer long-term side-effects or secondary cancer. To show improvement with such good survival, large populations are needed.

Study groups from Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Finland, Estonia and Lithuania (NOPHO), the UK (UKALL), the Netherlands (DCOG), Germany (COALL), Belgium (BSPHO), Portugal (SHOP), Ireland (PHOAI), and France (SFCE), have designed a common treatment protocol for children and young adults with ALL.

The study has a complex clinical trial design with sub-protocols (the randomisations / intervention) connected to a master protocol. The master protocol consists of well established therapy-elements and in its design typical for current ALL therapy. The master protocol therapy is in the study design considered as standard of care (SOC) therapy for children and young adults with ALL.

The study structure is defined by a master protocol onto which randomised and interventional sub-protocols as well as sub-studies may be added, run and stop in a modular fashion.

The randomisations / intervention may identify therapy that is less toxic, but equally efficacious for sub-groups of patients and innovative therapy that may reduce relapses and death from ALL. In the master protocol, improved risk-stratification is likely to increase survival and reduce unnecessary toxicity and the introduction of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of Asparaginase activity will make the use of Asparaginase more rational and efficient and may thus improve overall outcomes.

The investigators hypothesise that patients stratified to the standard-risk group are over-treated. Therefore, it will be tested if the treatment can be safely reduced. In the R1 randomisation, patients will be randomised to receiving the Delayed Intensification (DI) phase of therapy with or without the anthracycline Doxorubicin.

A similar hypothesis of over-treatment will also be tested in patients stratified to the intermediate risk-low group. In the R2 randomisation patients will be randomly assigned to either removal of Doxorubicin during the DI phase or removal of Vincristine and Dexamethasone pulses during the maintenance phase or to the control group, which will be treated with Doxorubicin in DI as well as Vincristine and Dexamethasone pulses during maintenance. Patients will only be randomised once.

Randomisation R1 and R2 are only considered for children since adults have worse outcome and very poor survival after relapse, but the risk-stratification is likely to reduce the number of high-risk cases also in the adult-group.

Patients stratified as intermediate risk-high (IR-high) are identified as having an increased risk of relapse and thus a less favourable prognosis than the standard- and intermediate risk-low groups, but a more favourable prognosis than the high risk patients. The majority of all relapses in childhood ALL occur in the IR-high group. Following a relapse, 40 % of the children can be successfully treated again and for adults the corresponding figure is less than 20 %, so preventing relapses is very important. New treatment options that improves the antileukemic efficacy and which have an improved safety profile are urgently needed.

For IR-high patients the R3 randomisation is available. In R3 patients will be randomised to the addition of two cycles of Inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) - Besponsa, before the start of the maintenance phase or no addition. The patients randomised to the InO arm will receive maintenance for the same duration as in the control arm.

Patients with ABL-class fusions in their leukaemic clone will, as a non-randomised experimental intervention, be treated with an addition of a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor during the induction phase (for patients <25 years) and from the consolidation phase (patients 25 years). This intervention may shift therapy for previously resistant cases to lower intensity treatment with the associated reduced morbidity and may also reduce the number of relapses in analogy with the results in Ph+ ALL. The reason for not performing a randomised comparison is the rarity of the aberration and also the diversity of ABL-class fusions, reducing statistical power for any comparison further. For this reason, the results of this intervention may be pooled with other study-groups trying similar approaches.

For high-risk B-lineage patients, CAR-T therapy can be an alternative to high-risk blocks and stem-cell transplant, but in this case the intervention (CAR-T infusion) will be performed outside the ALLTogether1 study. However, the stratification-system in ALLTogether1 will define the population with a potential CAR-T indication.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT04307576

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Recruitment Status: Open

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