The Effect of Energy Drink Ingredients on Cardiovascular Function in Men and Women 18-39 Years Old

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Mar 29, 2023
  • participants needed
    35
  • sponsor
    Duquesne University
Updated on 29 March 2021
electrocardiogram
arrhythmia
fibrillation
vitamins

Summary

  1. Statement of the research question:

Does the caffeine in energy drinks interact with other ingredients to affect cardiovascular function in healthy male and female adults after exercise?

2. Purpose and significance of the study:

Energy drinks are beverages promoted to enhance alertness along with athletic and cognitive performance. The most common ingredients found in energy drinks include water, sugar, caffeine, taurine, and B-vitamins, with variable inclusion of other ingredients, such as carnitine, glucuronolactone, inositol, guarana, ginkgo biloba leaf extract, thistle extract, and ginseng root extract. Since the mid-1990s, the consumption of energy drinks has grown dramatically, with worldwide sales in 2017 exceeding $49 billion.

As the sale of energy drinks has grown, so has the number of adverse event case reports for patients who consumed energy drinks. Reported symptoms included cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, atrial fibrillation, and cardiac arrest. A few small clinical studies have found that energy drinks can increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure and change electrical activity in the heart as measured by an electrocardiogram (ECG). The intent of the proposed study is to determine whether caffeine or the combination of caffeine with taurine and L-carnitine can alter cardiovascular function. Hypothesis: The effects of the ingredients of energy drinks on the heart are mediated in part by interactions between caffeine, taurine and carnitine. The amount of each ingredient in the study was based upon the amount commonly contained in two cans of energy drinks currently on the market.

Description

Title: The Effect of Energy Drink Ingredients on Cardiovascular Function

  1. Statement of the research question

Does the caffeine in energy drinks interact with other ingredients to affect cardiovascular function, including QTc interval of the EKG, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy male and female adults after exercise?

2. Purpose and significance of the study

Energy drinks are beverages promoted to enhance alertness along with athletic and cognitive performance. The most common ingredients found in energy drinks include water, sugar, caffeine, taurine, and B-vitamins, with variable inclusion of other ingredients, such as carnitine, glucuronolactone, inositol, guarana, ginkgo biloba leaf extract, thistle extract, and ginseng root extract. Since the mid-1990s, the consumption of energy drinks has grown dramatically, with worldwide sales in 2017 exceeding $49 billion.

As the sale of energy drinks has grown, so has the number of adverse event case reports for patients who consumed energy drinks. Reported symptoms include cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, atrial fibrillation, and cardiac arrest. A few small clinical studies have reported that energy drinks can increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure and change electrical activity in the heart as measured by an electrocardiogram (EKG). The intent of the proposed study is to determine whether caffeine or the combination of caffeine with taurine and L-carnitine can alter heart rate, blood pressure and the QTc interval of the EKG. Caffeine stimulates cardiovascular function primarily through antagonism of adenosine receptors. Taurine is a modulator of intracellular calcium ion concentrations which can affect the strength cardiac contraction. Carnitine facilitates fatty acid transport into the mitochondria, thereby increasing the production of adenosine triphosphate, the energy source of cells. Hypothesis: the effects of the ingredients of energy drinks on the heart are mediated in part by interactions between caffeine, taurine and carnitine. The amount of each ingredient in the study was based upon the amount commonly contained in two cans of energy drinks currently on the market.

Details
Condition Arrhythmia, Dysrhythmia, Arrhythmia, Heart disease, Heart disease, Cardiac Disease, Blood Pressure, Blood pressure, Dysrhythmia, Cardiac Disease, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac dysrhythmias, arrhythmias, cardiac arrhythmias, dysrhythmias, abnormal heart rhythms
Treatment Energy Drink Ingredients and Exercise
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04149717
SponsorDuquesne University
Last Modified on29 March 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

No preexisting medical conditions (including pregnancy)
Subjects must be capable of exercising on a treadmill (Vigorous activity: more than 7 kcal/min; <https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/pdf/PA_Intensity_table_2_1.pdf>)
BMI within normal range (18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2)
Average daily caffeine intake between 1 and 5 caffeinated beverages

Exclusion Criteria

Age below 18 or greater than 39 years
Unable to provide legal consent to participate in the study
Preexisting medical conditions including but not limited to: pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, endocrine disorders, psychiatric or neurological disorders, musculo-skeletal disorders, immune disorders, respiratory disorders, dermatological disorders, infections, blindness, hearing disabilities
BMI less than 18.5 or greater than 24.9 kg/m25
Current or future students of Drs. Johnson and/or Montepara
Incarceration in local, state or federal justice systems
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