Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in Acute Heart Failure (DICTATE-AHF)

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    Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Updated on 21 March 2022
heart failure
acute heart failure
loop diuretic
fluid overload
diuretic therapy
decompensated heart failure
acute decompensated heart failure
hemoglobin a1c


This is a randomized trial of the addition of dapagliflozin to patients with or without type 2 diabetes hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Participants will be recruited following an initial standard evaluation in the ED and randomized within 24 hours of presentation for ADHF in a 1:1 fashion to protocolized diuretic therapy or dapagliflozin + protocolized diuretic therapy.


Patients with acute decompensated HF (ADHF) are generally admitted due to symptoms of congestion and 90% are treated with a loop diuretic. However at least one-third of these patients are inadequately decongested due primarily to "diuretic resistance" and/ or "cardiorenal syndrome". The inability to achieve decongestion is associated with a worse prognosis and a higher rate of re-hospitalization for ADHF. More than 40% of all patients admitted with ADHF have diabetes and that percentage is growing both in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) and Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF).

The admission blood glucose is elevated in approximately one-half of ADHF hospitalizations. We recently demonstrated the admission blood glucose was within 50mg/dl of the chronic average blood glucose in 66% of patients with diabetes admitted with ADHF. The median (IQR) admission blood glucose change from the chronic blood glucose was only -7 (-29, 26) mg/dl. Thus, the acute glucose in patients with T2DM presenting with acute heart failure is most often related to poor chronic glucose control suggesting that these patients would benefit from attempts to initiate therapies to improve chronic glucose control while in the hospital.

No new therapies have been introduced in the United States for ADHF in several decades. Natriuretic peptides such as nesiritide and ularitide have failed to improve outcomes in either the chronic or acute heart failure patients. Diuretic resistance and hyperglycemia are common problems in ADHF admissions and represent a therapeutic opportunity for new therapies.

The sodium-glucose cotransporter-2(SGLT2) inhibitors, now approved for the anti-hyperglycemic therapies also have an osmotic diuretic and natriuretic effect. In the chronic setting SGLT2 inhibitors reduce weight with modest decrements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with a marked drop in albuminuria and a small drop in estimated GFR (-5 mL min-1.1.73 m-2) which returns to baseline over time. In patients with diabetes the SGLT2 transporter likely accounts for as much as 14% of total sodium chloride absorption. In the acute setting following a single dose, SGLT2 inhibitors did not increase urine volume. However, the acute diuretic effects have not been studied in a population with heart failure with or without concomitant hyperglycemia who are undergoing diuresis. To our knowledge, no current trials are investigating the effects of SGLT2 inhibition in ADHF. The current studies planned in HF are investigating the acute effects of SGLT2 on stable HF (NCT03027960), the chronic effects of SGLT2 inhibition in compensated, chronic HF (NCT03619213, NCT02653482, NCT03030235, NCT03057977), changes in pulmonary pressure hemodynamics in patients monitored by CardioMEMs devices (NCT03030222), and effects on cardiopulmonary exercise fitness in chronic HF (NCT02862067).

Congestion remains the major cause of hospital readmission for heart failure and an inpatient plan of care that allowed more effective decongestion would be rapidly and widely adopted by the medical community. Therefore, we propose to test the decongesting effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with or without Type II diabetes admitted with an acute decompensation of chronic heart failure.

Condition Heart Failure, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Treatment Dapagliflozin 10 mg, Protocolized Diuretic Therapy
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04298229
SponsorVanderbilt University Medical Center
Last Modified on21 March 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Age of 18 years or older
Randomized within 24 of presentation during a hospital admission for hypervolemic decompensated heart failure defined as
pulmonary artery catheterization with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure greater than 19mmHg plus a systemic physical exam finding of hypervolemia (peripheral edema, ascites, or pulmonary edema on auscultation)
in the absence of pulmonary artery catheterization data 2 of the following signs or symptoms: peripheral edema, ascites, jugular venous pressure > 10mmHg, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, 5-pound weight gain, or signs of congestion on chest x-ray or lung ultrasound
Planned use of IV loop diuretic therapy during current hospitalization
eGFR of 25 ml/min/1.73m2 by the MDRD equation or greater

Exclusion Criteria

Type 1 diabetes
Serum glucose < 80mg/dl at enrollment
Systolic blood pressure < 90mmHg at enrollment
Requirement of intravenous inotropic therapy
History of hypersensitivity to any SGLT2 inhibitors
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding
Severe anemia (Hemoglobin < 7.5g/dl)
Severe uncorrected aortic or mitral stenosis
Inability to perform standing weights or measure urine output accurately
History of diabetic ketoacidosis
Scheduled combination nephron blockade with loop and thiazide therapy as an outpatient
Diffuse anasarca with 4+ edema and projected hypervolemia exceeding 40-pounds
Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C)
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