DRAGON 1- Training, Accreditation, Implementation and Safety Evaluation of Combined PVE/HVE (DRAGON)

  • day left to enroll
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Maastricht University
Updated on 21 July 2022


Brief Summary: Some colorectal liver metastases can only be resected after inducing liver regeneration by portal vein embolization (PVE) to increase size function of the future liver remnant (FLR). While PVE is standard, embolization of portal vein and hepatic veins (PVE/HVE) on one side of the liver may faster and more extensive liver size and function growth. PVE/HVE is a novel procedure and requires a safety and feasibility evaluation in a pretrial (DRAGON1) to then be compared in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to PVE (DRAGON 2).


Detailed Description: Resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRLM) improves survival compared to chemotherapy alone and may lead to cure in up to 40% of patients. Surgical resectability is limited by location of metastases and by FLR size and function. Commonly, the volume of the future liver remnant (FLR) should be at least 30% of the functional FLR volume. If this volume criterion is not met, the induction of liver regeneration between a two-stage hepatectomy is performed at many centers, with the aim to render patients resectable and reduce the risk of post hepatectomy liver failure. Gold standard to induce regeneration is the embolization of the portal vein branches to the tumor carrying liver (PVE) to induce regeneration of the FLR. Recently, combined embolization of both portal and hepatic veins (PVE/HVE) has been described as an alternative to portal vein embolization because it accelerates and increases growth of the FLR. PVE/HVE combines simultaneous embolization of the portal main branches into the tumor bearing liver and the hepatic vein draining them. The tissue in the part of the liver treated with PVE/HVE stays viable because the hepatic artery continues to supplies the liver deprived of portal and hepatic veins. Preclinical studies in pigs have demonstrated feasibility of this method and human case series show accelerated and increased liver growth. No multi-center evaluation has been performed so far. DRAGON 1 is an international, prospective, multi-center trial to test enrolment capacity of participants and safety of portal and hepatic vein embolization (PVE/HVE). DRAGON 1 will form the basis of the RCT DRAGON 2 to compare PVE with PVE/HV. DRAGON 2 is expected to start in 2021.

Condition Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases
Treatment Portal- and hepatic vein embolization, Portal and Hepatic Vein Embolization
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04272931
SponsorMaastricht University
Last Modified on21 July 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patients with primarily unresectable/potentially resectable CRLM after conversion chemotherapy with a FLR <30% in normal livers, or 40% in livers chemotherapy damaged livers
years and older
Patients up to ECOG 3 (not more than 50% bedbound)
Patients with non-resected primary colorectal cancer (CRC) may be included if and only if there is an intent to remove the CRC after the liver treatment (liver first approach)
Staging CT chest and (if symptomatic) CT/MRI excludes unresectable extrahepatic disease, while metastatic disease that may be cured in the future, is included
Patients with resectable lung metastases or lung metastases that and be ablated can be included only after statement about resectability/ablatability by tumor board
Patients have to be to understand the trial and provide informed consent

Exclusion Criteria

Patients with extrahepatic disease other than lung metastases
Patients with metastatic disease to the lung that cannot be ablated or resected will be excluded
Patients with intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC)
Patients with Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC)
Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
Pregnant or lactating women will not be eligible
Potential to get pregnant has to be excluded (obligatory contraception etc.)
Progression by modified RECIST criteria on cross-sectional imaging after conversion chemotherapy is an exclusion criterion. Complete response in cross-sectional imaging after conversion chemotherapy
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a study center
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact



Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note