A Trial of Treatments to Assess the Effects on Outcome of Adults With AML and MDS Undergoing Allogeneic SCT (COSI)

  • End date
    Jan 21, 2026
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of Birmingham
Updated on 2 March 2022
myeloid leukemia
cell transplantation
consolidation therapy
secondary acute myeloid leukemia
blast cells


Treatment options for older adults with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) and Myelodysplasia (MDS) are limited. Although stem cell transplantation remains one of the most effective treatments it is associated with severe side effects which have until recently prevented its use in older adults. In the last decade the use of reduced intensity transplants has allowed the extension of the potentially curative effect of transplantation to older patients in whom it was previously precluded. Although a major advance such transplants are associated with a high risk of disease relapse particularly in patients with high risk disease.

This study will evaluate new transplant strategies with the aim of improving the outcome of patients with AML and high risk MDS after stem cell transplantation. Three approaches to improve transplant outcome will be studied:

  1. Comparing the new pre-transplant consolidation therapy vyxeos with the standard consolidation therapy
  2. Comparing new conditioning therapies in patients under the age of 55 years
  3. Comparing new conditioning therapies in patients aged 55 and over

All patients will be followed up for a minimum of 2 years.


This is a randomised, international, phase II/III, multicentre, clinical trial in patients with AML and MDS undergoing allo-SCT. Patients with AML or MDS who fulfil the eligibility criteria will be invited to participate in the trial across centers performing allo-SCT.

Patients will be randomised to treatment based on a minimisation algorithm prepared at the Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit (CRCTU).

Randomisation 1 (R1) will compare the novel consolidation therapy vyxeos with the standard consolidation therapy intermediate dose cytarabine.

Randomisation 2 (R2) will compare the novel conditioning regimen thiotepa/busulphan/fludarabine (TBF) with the standard conditioning therapy fludarabine/busulphan (FB4) in patients aged under 55 years of age.

Randomisation 3 (R3) will compare the novel conditioning regimen mini thiotepa/busulphan/fludarabine (mini TBF) with the standard regimen fludarabine/busulphan (FB2) in patients aged 55 years of age and over.

Condition Acute Myeloid Leukaemia, Myelodysplasia
Treatment cytarabine, Fludarabine, thiotepa, Vyxeos, Busulphan, Busulphan
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04217278
SponsorUniversity of Birmingham
Last Modified on2 March 2022


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Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

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If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

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Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

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