Treatment of Post-STEMI Left Ventricular Thrombus With Optimized Anticoagulant (EARLYmyo-LVT)

  • End date
    Dec 30, 2022
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    RenJi Hospital
Updated on 1 March 2022


Left ventricular thrombus is a common complication subsequent to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that related to increased embolic events. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety outcomes of Rivaroxaban on the treatment of post-STEMI left ventricular thrombus.


Despite the fast development and popularization of reperfusion as well as adjunctive medical therapy, complications of STEMI remain critical causes of adverse events. Among them, the formation of the left ventricular thrombus (LVT) subsequent to STEMI is not rare. The incidence of STEMI-related LVT could be as higher as 31%-56% in the earlier time when thrombolysis was the mainstream of reperfusion . The risk lowers in the ear of the primary PCI, but LVT can still be detected in around 15% patients. Anterior MI is the most critical determinant of LVT. In a study including 2911 patients, 93.2% LVT occurred due to the occlusion of left artery descending (LAD). More than 2/3 of LVT was reported within the first two weeks of STEMI, late thrombus can be found in three months or even later. The existence of LVT is clearly related to increased risk of embolic events and death. In a meta-analysis in 2019, STEMI patients with LVT demonstrated a 3.97 times higher risk of embolic events than those without LVT. In a recent study, the rate of 5-year embolism in STEMI patients with LVT was up to 16.9% if without effective therapy, significantly higher than the rate of 2.9% in patients without LVT and 3% in patients with LVT but undergoing ideal therapy.

Current therapeutic guidelines recommend anticoagulant therapy for post-STEMI LVT. Since most of the LVT would be found in the acute phase of STEMI, the anticoagulant therapy is usually in addition to antiplatelet treatment. So far, Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) is still the standard medication in the treatment of LVT. The 2013 ACC/AHA guideline for STEMI management recommended adding VKA to the dual-antiplatelet regiment in patients with LVT for at least 3 months. Similarly, the 2014 ASA guideline for primary prevention of stroke gave an IIa level recommendation to use VKA adjunctive to antiplatelet medications in STEMI patients developing LVT. The treatment of VKA seems effective to both resolve LVT and decrease embolic events. In two small studies, the triple antithrombotic regimen comprising of VKA and dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) for 3 months resolved 88% and 92.3% LVT on echo, respectively. The addition of VKA remarkably could reduce the embolic events to 0-3% as reported in different studies.

However, the complicated titrations and the need to frequently monitor international normalized ratios (INRs) make the use of warfarin inconvenient, especially for patients who have difficulty to access medical services regularly. Therefore, the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) as a substitute for warfarin is highly attractive. However, the efficacy of NOACs in the treatment of STEMI-related LVT is not clear. Current experiences come from small series of case reports. Rivaroxaban is a potent Xa factor inhibitor. In the field of cardiology, it has become a preferred replacement of VKA in the prevention of embolic events due to the left atrial thrombus. In the X-TRA study, 15mg/QD rivaroxaban resolved 41% of left atrial thrombus. In the case of post-STEMI LVT, 15mg/QD rivaroxaban additional to dual antiplatelet therapy resolved all 4 cases of LVT in 2-4 weeks in a Cyprus study. In an American case series, 20mg /QD rivaroxaban plus one antiplatelet medication (clopidogrel) also successfully resolved LVT in 2 patients. Therefore, using NOACs to treat post-STEMI LVT is promising. The 2017 ESC guideline for STEMI management doesn't limit the choice of anticoagulation for LVT only to VKA, but the application of NOACs still needs further confirmation.

This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban on the treatment of post-STEMI LVT.

Condition ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Left Ventricular Thrombus
Treatment Rivaroxaban, vitamin K antagonist
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03764241
SponsorRenJi Hospital
Last Modified on1 March 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Age:18-75 years old
Myocardial infarction diagnosed by 1) typical ischemic symptom, 2) elevated ST segment at the J-point in two contiguous leads (ST elevation should be 2mm in men 40years; 2.5mm in men <40years, or 1.5mm in women regardless of age in leads V2 and V3; and 1mm in leads other than V2 and V3 ); 3) elevated cardiac troponin value with at least one value above 99th percentile upper reference limitUPL); 4) confirmed by coronary angiography (CAG) or imaging evidence of new loss of anterior myocardium
Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is detected by either cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) or TTE in 45 days after symptom onset

Exclusion Criteria

Any contraindication of anticoagulant therapy or unacceptable risk of bleeding
Active bleeding
History of intracranial hemorrhage
Clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding within 12 months before randomization
Severe thrombocytopenia (<50x109/L), or Anemia (i.e. Hemoglobin <90g/L) at screening or pre-randomization
Liver function Child-Pugh B or C
Untreated arterial aneurysm, arterial or venous malformation and aorta dissection
Body weight <40kg
Undergoing anticoagulant therapy before STEMI onset
Cardiovascular condition
Cardiac shock
Uncontrolled blood pressure (SBP\geq180mmHg)
Planned CABG within 3months
Suspicious Pseudo-ventricular aneurysm
Concomitant diseases
Severe chronic or acute renal failure (CrCl<50ml/min at screening or pre-randomization)
Significantly liver disease
Current substance abuse (drug or alcohol) problem
Life expectancy to less than 12 months
Known allergies, or intolerance to rivaroxaban
Woman who is currently pregnant, or breastfeeding
Other hypercoagulable state, such as malignat tumor, SLE
Other conditions adjudicated by investigators to be unsuitable to anticoagulation
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