• End date
    Jan 3, 2025
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of Turin, Italy
Updated on 10 May 2021
ejection fraction
cell transplantation
bone marrow procedure
bone lesion
serum calcium
bone marrow plasma cells


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic disease deriving from an abnormal proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. The survival of MM patients varies from less than 6 months to more than 10 years depending on the stage of disease at diagnosis and prognostic factors. Three current standard treatments are approved for elderly or younger patients with significant comorbidities not eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT): bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP), melphalan-prednisone- thalidomide (MPT) and lenalidomide with low-dose dexamethasone (Rd).

The consistent fraction of elderly patients with cancer and co-morbidities are at increased risk of developing frailty (the emergent geriatric syndrome), as well as physical and cognitive decline, with negative effect on nutrition and lifestyle, and eventually on responsiveness to and efficacy of treatments.

A frailty scale was recently described that categorized patients with MM as fit, intermediate or frail based on age, comorbidities, and physical and cognitive functioning. The frailty score was a predictor of death, progression of the disease, toxicity and drug discontinuation.

In this project, the investigators will compare available first line standard treatments, the triplet VMP versus the doublet Rd, in an unselected population of patients 65 years affected by MM in every day clinical practice. In the last decade, many novel and expensive drugs have been approved for this disease, yet the general older population is not adequately represented in validating trials. Nevertheless, the results and treatments derived from those trials have often been applied to the older population, with a high risk to produce a negative impact on patient functional capacity and ability to carry out daily tasks, cognitive function, depression status, nutritional condition, social situation/capability to stay at home and finally affecting their quality of life (QoL) and OS. The main aim of the project is to evaluate the best initial treatment for elderly MM patients and to compare benefits, risks, QoL and costs of currently available, standard treatments according to the frailty profile.


All patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive:


Bortezomib (V):

  • 1.3 mg/m2 subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29 and 32 in cycles 1-4;
  • 1.3 mg/m2 subcutaneously on days 1, 8, 22 and 29 in cycles 5-9.

Melphalan (M):

  • 9 mg/m2 orally on days 1, 2, 3 and 4 of each cycle.

Prednisone (P):

  • 60 mg/m2 orally on days 1, 2, 3 and 4 of each cycle. Each cycle is to be repeated every 42 days. Duration: Maximum 9 therapy cycles can be performed. After 9 cycles, patients will be observed until progression disease or the start of a new line of therapy.


Lenalidomide (R):

  • 25 mg orally on days 1-21 of each cycle.

Dexamethasone (d):

  • 40 mg orally on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of each cycle. Each cycle is a 28-day cycles. Duration: patients will receive treatment until any sign of progression or intolerance.

Condition Multiple Myeloma, Lymphoproliferative Disorder, Lymphoproliferative disorders, multiple myeloma (mm)
Treatment prednisone, melphalan, Dexamethasone, Lenalidomide, Velcade
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03829371
SponsorUniversity of Turin, Italy
Last Modified on10 May 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patients has given voluntary written informed consent before the performance of any study related procedure
Patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma (NDMM) based on standard IMWG (International Myeloma Working Group) criteria
Clonal bone marrow plasma cells >=10% or biopsy-proven bony or extramedullary plasmacytoma and any one or more of the following CRAB features and myeloma-defining
evidence of end organ damage that can be attributed to the underlying plasma cell proliferative disorder, specifically
Hypercalcemia: serum calcium >0.25 mmol/L (>1mg/dL) higher than the upper limit of normal or >2.75 mmol/L (>11mg/dL)
Renal insufficiency: creatinine clearance (CLcr)<40 mL per minute (measured or estimated by validated equations) or serum creatinine > 177 micro mol/L (>2mg/dL)
Anemia: hemoglobin value of >20g/L below the lower limit of normal, or a hemoglobin value <100g/L
Bone lesions: one or more osteolytic lesion on skeletal radiography, CT, or PET/CT. If bone marrow has <10% clonal plasma cells, more than one bone lesion is required to distinguish from solitary plasmacytoma with minimal marrow involvement
Any one or more of the following biomarkers of malignancy
Clonal bone marrow plasma cell percentage >=60% (clonality should be established by showing kappa/lambda-light-chain restriction on flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, or immunofluorescence. Bone marrow plasma cell percentage should preferably be estimated from a core biopsy specimen; in case of a disparity between the aspirate and core biopsy, the highest value should be used)
Involved:uninvolved serum free light chain ratio >=100 (values based on the serum Freelite assay. The involved free light chain must be >=100 mg/L)
>1 focal lesion detected by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) studies (each focal lesion must be 5 mm or more in size
According to physician's opinion, patients can undergo either one of the two standard treatments and procedures
Females of childbearing potential (FBCP) must use an effective contraceptive method for 28 days before the study treatment, during the treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose of study drugs
Male subjects must use an effective barrier method if sexually active with FCBP during treatment and for at least 6 months after the last dose of study drug
Patients should be ineligible for ASCT, defined as
>= 65 years old
younger than 65 years but who reject the transplant procedure or with abnormal cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic and renal function defined as [1]
LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) < 40%
FEV1 (forced expiratory volume-1 second) < 40%
Bilirubin > 1.5 UNL, AST/ALT >2.5 UNL Creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min

Exclusion Criteria

Hypersensitivity to any active substance or to any of the excipients (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, boron, mannitol, nitrogen, crospovidone, colloidal anhydrous silica, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, macrogol, talc, sodium starch glycolate, sodium benzoate, propylene glycol, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin, sodium saccharin, sodium EDTA, sodium hydroxide)
Pregnant and lactating women
FBCP that do not follow the Pregnancy Prevention Plan requirements
Acute diffuse infiltrative pulmonary and pericardial disease
Acute viral infections (e.g. herpes simplex or ocular herpes simplex, herpes zoster, varicella)
Systemic mycotic or bacterial infections, unless specific anti-infectious therapy is ongoing
Peptic ulcer
Administration of prophylactic vaccine from 8 to 2 weeks before starting treatment
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