Dietary Counseling or Potassium Supplement to Increase Potassium Intake in Patients With High Blood Pressure

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Feb 7, 2024
  • participants needed
    120
  • sponsor
    Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
Updated on 7 December 2021
cardiovascular disease
hypertension
stroke
systolic blood pressure
potassium
blood pressure diastolic

Summary

High blood pressure is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Many medicines are available to lower blood pressures successfully, as well as many non-medical options, such as dietary changes. Some effective dietary changes include decreasing sodium and increasing potassium in the diet. A lot of focus has been on sodium intake yet; potassium intake in the diet remains low amongst adult Canadians. Excellent data exist in the published research reporting that increasing potassium intake, either as diet or even as supplements, reduces blood pressure and reduces risk of cardiovascular outcomes such as stroke.

The overall purpose of this study is to reveal the most effective way of increasing potassium, amongst participants with high blood pressure whose existing intake of potassium is low. In the first stage, participants with high blood pressure and proven low potassium intake will receive dietary counselling. If after 4 weeks, there has not been a desired increase in potassium intake, the patients will be prescribed an additional potassium supplement.

Description

High blood pressure is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide, including in Canada. The prevalence of high blood pressure is steadily rising, with growing and ageing population. Many medicines are available to decrease blood pressures successfully, as well as many non-medical options, such as dietary changes and exercise. There is a marked preference amongst patients, reiterated in a recent Hypertension Canada report, for more research into methods for controlling blood pressure without medicines or to reduce the burden of taking many pills to control high blood pressure. Indeed, effective options do exist, especially with diet, specifically decreasing sodium and increasing potassium in diet. Both these recommendations are also made by organizations worldwide including the World Health Organization as well as Hypertension Canada. Though a lot of focus has been on sodium intake in the public health outreach, even the potassium intake in diet remains woefully low amongst adult Canadians. Excellent data exist in the published research reporting that increasing potassium intake, either as diet or even as supplements, reduces blood pressure and reduces risk of cardiovascular outcomes such as stroke. The advice most often provided is to 'eat more fruits and vegetables' which does not get translated into concrete change.

The Investigators propose to do a clinical trial in two stages (as an adaptive trial design). In the first stage, participants with high blood pressure and proven low potassium intake (measured on the basis of collecting urine for 24 hours) will get individually tailored dietary advice, reinforced by weekly supportive phone/email support. If at 4 weeks, there has not been a desired increase in potassium intake, the patients will be prescribed an additional potassium supplement. Testing at 4 weeks will be conducted again to confirm the efficacy of the potassium supplement. Final measurements will be planned at 52 weeks to observe and measure the persistence of the effect of diet or additional supplement. Concurrent measurements of sodium intake, blood pressure, participant satisfaction, safety measures will also be done.

The results of the study would help determine the most effective method of increasing potassium intake, thus reducing blood pressure, need for blood pressure lowering medicines, at the same time potentially increasing participant satisfaction. The current guidelines recommend changes in diet (not supplement) to increase potassium intake, hence the two stage design will only add supplements if the most rigorous dietary advice does not work. The Investigators have received letters of support from the World Hypertension League and Hypertension Canada in support of the research design and for dissemination and implementation of the findings.

Details
Condition Vascular Diseases, Hypertension, Diabetes and Hypertension, High Blood Pressure (Hypertension), High Blood Pressure (Hypertension - Pediatric), Elevated Blood Pressure, high blood pressure, arterial hypertension
Treatment potassium citrate, Dietary counselling
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03809884
SponsorOttawa Hospital Research Institute
Last Modified on7 December 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Provides signed and dated informed consent form
Diagnosis of hypertension (either on treatment; or not on treatment with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM)- daytime systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 140 or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 90)
Male or female, aged 18 and greater (women of child bearing potential must use highly effective contraception (e.g. combined oral contraceptives, patch, vaginal ring, injectables, and implants; intrauterine device (IUD) or intrauterine system (IUS); vasectomy of male partner and tubal ligation)
24-Hour Urine K < 60 mmol/day

Exclusion Criteria

Serum Potassium < 3.3 or > 5.1 mmol/L
Glomerular Filtration Rate < 45 ml/min/1.73m2
Primary hyperaldosteronism
Pregnancy or lactation
Psychiatric disorder which, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with the study, or inability to give consent
Severe Liver disease
Metabolic Alkalosis (HCO3 > 32 mmol/L)
Exclude patients who need to be started on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade in the first 3 months
Gastrointestinal disorder (e.g. delayed gastric emptying, dysphagia, oesophageal/gastric/duodenal ulcer)
Presence of cardiac disease (sever myocardial damage, heart failure, or clinical changes in congestive heart failure, ejection fraction <35%)
Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (HbA1C >12%)
Acute dehydration
Extensive tissue damage (burns)
Increased hypersensitivity to potassium (e.g. paramyotonia congenital or adynamia episodica hereditaria)
Patients taking other potassium supplements for another indication (eg. kidney stones)
Acidosis (pH<7.11)
Adrenal insufficiency
Allergies to any of the investigational product ingredients (medicinal and nonmedicinal)
Patients on any of the following medications should be on a stable dose: angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, amiloride, non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-blockers, digoxin, and heparin
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