Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV-1 Using a Rescue Intervention

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • participants needed
    2000
  • sponsor
    French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS)
Updated on 24 July 2021

Summary

The second visit of the Expanded Programme of Immunization when the child is 2 months old (EPI-2) represents a unique opportunity to link the EPI and PMTCT programmes and to introduce preventive and therapeutic rescue interventions in order to: 1) Assess the efficacy of the PMTCT cascade up to 2 months postpartum; 2) Allow at least 80% of HIV-1-infected infants identified at the second EPI visit who were not involved in HIV care to initiate ARVs at the earliest, but no later than 2 months after confirmation of HIV diagnosis; 3) Reduce HIV-1 transmission to less than 3% between 2 and 12 months among exposed children who completed the second EPI visit

Description

In the vast majority of sub-Saharan African countries, all mothers attend an immunization (EPI) visit when their child is 6 to 8 weeks old (the first EPI visit for BCG and OPV0 vaccination, takes place at childbirth).

This study primarily aims at utilizing existing strategies to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission through optimizing the use of lamivudine as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for at risk children. For this purpose, the study will use recently marketed diagnostic point of care (POC) tests at the first level of care for maternal HIV-1 viral load and early infant diagnosis (EID). This POC early infant diagnosis will also allow optimizing treatment of HIV-infected infants by offering to all the benefits of an early ART initiation.

The hypothesis is that the second visit for routine vaccination (Expanded Program of Immunization visit 2: EPI-2) represents a unique opportunity to link EPI and PMTCT programs and introduce rescue preventive and therapeutic interventions. The EPI visit will allow an opportunity to:

  1. Assess the efficacy of the PMTCT cascade.
  2. Identify HIV-1-infected children early and refer them for early initiation of treatment
  3. Provide their children with an antiretroviral drug that can protect them from HIV-1, irrespective of their mother's adherence to ART as part of the Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial.

The Phase III RCT will be testing a rescue preventive intervention among HIV-1-uninfected children exposed to HIV-1 by their HIV-1-infected breastfeeding mothers against a control routine Option B+ implementation.

Following a brief questionnaire and counselling on ART adherence and breastfeeding, participant mothers aged 15 years or older who meet eligibility criteria will be randomized to the control or intervention arms at a 1:1 ratio.

The phase III Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) testing a rescue preventive intervention among HIV-1-uninfected children exposed to HIV-1 by their HIV-1-infected breastfeeding mothers against a control routine Option B+ implementation.

In the control arm, routine Option B+ national guidelines including HIV-1 plasmatic viral load testing will be adhered to as part of the clinics' usual practice. Visits will take place at 6-8 weeks, 6 and 12 months post-partum to collect samples from the mother for the analysis of viral load results at 12 months. In addition, at 6-8 weeks, 6 and 12 months post-partum, POC tests will be done for the diagnosis of HIV-1 in their infants (by HIV-1 DNA PCR) and results will be shared within 2 hours. Children infected with HIV-1 will be referred to the National Programme for confirmed diagnosis and immediate ART.

The intervention arm aims at reducing the risk of HIV transmission for infants exposed to large amounts of HIV-1 through breastfeeding, which correlates with the maternal plasma viral load. At 6-8 weeks post-partum, a venous blood sample will be taken from the mothers to assess their viral load using a GenXpert HIV RNA POC test. Concomitantly, a capillary blood sample will be taken from the child for the detection of HIV-1 (by HIV-1 DNA PCR). Children infected with HIV-1 will be referred to the National Programme for confirmed HIV diagnosis and immediate ART.

For children that are not HIV-1 infected in the intervention arm, the results on the mother's viral load will guide the next steps:

  • Mothers with a detectable plasma viral load ( 1000 copies/mL) will receive reinforced counselling on ART adherence.

In addition, their child will be initiated on PrEP, lamivudine syrup (7.5 mg twice daily if 2 to 4 kg; 25 mg twice a day if weight <8 kg; and 50 mg twice a day if weight >8 kg). Mothers will come with their child to the study site every month (at M3, M4, M5, M7, M8, M9, M10 and M11) to collect drug supplies, safety follow-up, child's PrEP adherence adherence and counselling, mother's ART adherence and reporting. In Zambia, high risk HIV negative infants on a 12-week prophylactic regimen and are still taking ART at this visit, their first day of the study prophylaxis administration will take place at Month 3.

  • Mothers with an undetectable viral loads (<1000 copies/mL) will continue receiving ART adherence counselling. However, the children of these mothers will not be initiated on PrEP on the study at 6-8 weeks of age. However, because ART compliance declines rapidly over time within the first year of initiation, additional monitoring on the viral load of the mother and the diagnosis of the child will take place at 6 months: If the maternal plasmatic viral load is 1000 copies/mL, the child will be initiated on PrEP, lamivudine syrup (7.5 mg twice daily if 2 to 4 kg; 25 mg twice a day if weight <8 kg; and 50 mg twice a day if weight >8 kg), until the baby is 12 months old or until the confirmed end of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding will be considered to be ceased if the mother confirms she is no longer breastfeeding for 2 consecutive monthly visits.

Children infected with HIV-1 will be referred to the National Programme for confirmed diagnosis and immediate ART.

Details
Condition HIV-1
Treatment Lamivudine Oral Solution
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03870438
SponsorFrench National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS)
Last Modified on24 July 2021

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