Anti-fungal Strategies in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients

  • End date
    Jun 30, 2024
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Updated on 7 May 2022
antibiotic therapy
renal failure
pulmonary diseases
fungal infection
invasive fungal infections
acute renal failure
pleuritic pain
nasal ulcer
abdominal perforation
antibacterial agents
renal replacement therapy
antifungal agents
total parenteral nutrition
invasive fungal infection
h1n1 influenza


Early treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI) may prevent undue mortality in acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients. We aim to study the impact of early empiric treatment (based on clinical suspicion) of IFI as compared to pre-emptive treatment (based on biomarkers and culture positivity) on the outcomes in ACLF patients with suspected IFI in a randomized trial. The ACLF patients with clinically suspected IFI would be randomly allocated to empiric treatment or pre-emptive treatment group and followed up clinically to assess the impact on survival, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness and safety of such an approach. The protocol is designed to cut- down unnecessary usage and to curtail the duration of antifungals use in ICUs based on biomarkers/culture-driven stoppage rules. The results will fuel further studies on formal cost-effective analysis and antimicrobial stewardship protocols in ACLF patients.


Research question: Does an early empiric antifungal therapy improve 28-day overall survival as compared to pre-emptive antifungal therapy in critically ill, non-neutropenic adult ACLF patients with suspected IFI?

This study will be a single-center prospective randomized open-label with blinded end-point PROBE assessment and conducted at Liver ICU.

ACLF patients aged 18 to 75 years with all three criteria will be included

  1. ICU stay of 48 hours or recent hospitalization
  2. Two or more risk factors for IFI 3. Clinical suspicion of IFI

Exclusion criteria A Neutrophil count of less than 500 per mm3 B Recent antifungal treatment in the past 1months C Hepatocellular carcinoma or other active malignancy D Known hypersensitivity or contraindication to Liposomal AmB E HIV positivity or on HAART F Pregnancy or lactation G Moribund patients

Eligible patients will be randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio to receive either early empiric systemic antifungal therapy (SAT: based on risk factors and clinical suspicion) or Pre-emptive SAT (based on risk factors, clinical suspicion and radiological/investigation based evidence of fungal infection) in addition to standard medical therapy SMT and followed up for a period of 28-days or transplant or death

Empirical therapy will be Liposomal AmB 3 to 5 mg per kg of body weight per day.

It is preferred because of maximum efficacy, widest spectrum, and safety in liver disease

Pre-emptive therapy with liposomal AmB will be given if the treatment initiation rules are met including fungal biomarkers positivity, Mycological or radiological evidence of IFI

Proven-IFI will be treated as per IDSA or ESCMID guidelines in either group Stoppage rules in both groups will be based on fungal biomarkers and cultures that will be done twice weekly and twice negative bio-markers or fungal cultures at day7 and 10 will be essential to stop treatment

In case of intolerable adverse effects or contraindications to LipoAmB, the patients will undergo treatment as per IDSA guidelines Standard Medical Therapy will be as indicated and will include nutritional support, rifaximin lactulose albumin diuretics proton-pump inhibitors multivitamins and antibiotics

Outcomes will include survival at 28-day, clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness and safety of two approaches of antifungal therapy

Condition Antifungal Agents, Invasive Fungal Infections, Mycoses, Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure
Treatment Treatment strategy trial
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT04157465
SponsorPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Last Modified on7 May 2022


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