Last updated on November 2019

Maintenance With Niraparib In Patients With Advanced Urothelial Cancer After 1st-line Platinum-based Chemotherapy


Brief description of study

This is a 2-arm, prospective, randomized (2:1 ratio), open-label, multi-centre, phase II study conducted in patients affected by unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer receiving niraparib plus best supportive care versus best supportive care as maintenance therapy after a first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.

The primary objective of the trial is to evaluate the efficacy of niraparib plus Best Supportive Care (BSC) vs. BSC alone, as maintenance treatment, in terms of prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS), in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer that obtained disease control (objective response or stable disease) with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.

Detailed Study Description

This is a 2-arm, prospective, randomized (2:1 ratio), open-label, multi-centre, phase II study conducted in patients affected by unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer receiving niraparib plus best supportive care versus best supportive care as maintenance therapy after a first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.

The primary objective of the trial is to evaluate the efficacy of niraparib plus Best Supportive Care (BSC) vs. BSC alone, as maintenance treatment, in terms of prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS), in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer that obtained disease control (objective response or stable disease) with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.

Poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors sensitivity is based on the presence of truncating and missense mutations in genes associated with the homologous recombination pathways. In The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset approximately 34% of bladder urothelial carcinoma harbored these mutations. Furthermore, in this study we plan to select a population potentially sensible to niraparib, by enrolling patients responding to platinum, indeed we know that there is a cross-sensitivity and a cross-resistance between platinum drugs and PARP inhibitors in urothelial carcinoma.

PFS is commonly adopted as primary endpoint in randomized phase II trials. Randomized design for phase II trials has been increasingly adopted in recent years, to allow a formal comparison between experimental and standard treatment. This should lead to a better interpretation of the results obtained with the experimental treatment, that are in most cases difficult to interpret in the absence of controls.

The sample size of the study is calculated with "relaxed" statistical criteria. The study design will verify if the experimental treatment (Niraparib) is promising enough to warrant a phase 3 trial for efficacy compared to observation.

A total of 65 PFS events are needed to provide 80% power to detect an hazard ratio (HR) of 0.57 (1.75), corresponding to a median increase in progression-free survival from 4 to 7 months, with one-tailed alpha 0.1.

With an accrual duration of 24 months, and additional 6 months of follow up after the completion of recruitment, 77 patient need to be randomized (26 assigned to control arm and 51 assigned to experimental arm) to obtain the 65 events needed.

Sample size of the phase II trial is too small to plan a formal analysis of interaction of treatment efficacy with type of response at first line treatment (i.e. objective response vs. stable disease). However, type of response to first line treatment will be among stratification factor for randomization, so the 2 treatment groups will be balanced. Exploratory subgroup analysis of treatment efficacy in patient who have obtained objective response with first line and in patients who have obtained stable disease with first line will be performed.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT03945084

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